A pedagogical scenario or learning scenario is an instantiation of an instructional design model for a given subject and a given kind of situation. It basically defines what learners and other actors like the teacher should/can do with a given set of resources and tools. A more formal scenario can be called a learning design.
See also the category example cases. The distinction between an (abstract) scenario and a concrete example cases is not always easy in the literature, given that published example cases try to generalize...
See also: Educational design language and educational modeling language.
2 Typical ingredients and typologies
Here is a small list of typical ingredients one can find in a scenario
- Several, usually sequential learning activities (these are smaller scenarios that are combined together)
- a learning environment within which the scenario happens
- various courseware (learning materials), e.g.
- IMS Content packs in various flavors (simple, SCORM 1.2, SCORM 2004, SS, LD)
- Print or electronic (PDF, Word, e-book, etc.) texts
Note: some courseware integrates learning activities, e.g. hypermodels or e-learning environments based on IMS Learning Design
Schulmeister (2005:487-488) suggest to define scenarios according to 3 dimensions:
- presence - virtual
- information - cooperation
- instruction - learning
The definition of what a pedagogical scenario is can differ a lot in various schools of thought based on different Learning theories, pedagogical theories etc. There are very contrasting instructional design models and ideas on pedagogic strategy.
3 Related design methodology
3.1 Design theories
Modern pedagogical theory (whether behaviorist, cognitivist, constructivist etc. ) insists on the importance of scenarios, i.e. story-boards that define learning activities.
Certain kinds of learning objects include pedagogical designs, e.g. IMS Learning Design, LAMS modules, Emergent Learning Objects.
Currently (20009) the most well known formal scenario specification and execution language is IMS Learning Design. It implements the following basic learning design model:
ROLE -> performs -> ACTIVITIES -> within -> an ENVRIONMENT
3.2 Scenario design software
- Educational modelling languages (e.g. IMS Learning Design) and associated tools (e.g. MOT
- Educational design tools like the Dialog Plus Toolkit (defunct) or ABC LD
- Various workflow languages made for other purposes.
- Scenario editors like OASIF (not based on a formal modelling language).
- Scenario-based learning management systems (learning activity systems) like LAMS, CeLS or FROG.
- Tools for lesson planning
- CSCL scripts define scenarios in the context of computer supported collaborative learning.
- See also (for the moment): Category:Pedagogical scenarios and Category:Example cases
- this is really not complete, sorry
5.1 Scenario databases
- Instructional Scenarios Wiki (A nice wiki that provides ideas to WebCT Vista users)
- Forum New Leaning (FNL, a Swiss competence network for teaching & learning with new technologies). Nice database of "learning objects" (i.e. scenarios that a teacher can use in classes) with many examples (most are in German). No longer maintained.
- e-Learning Scenarios (eduhub.ch)
- PerfecTIC Excellent canadian (french/english) scenario database. Each scenario is available as printable PDF.
- ProfWeb Excellent french/english Canadian Teacher Resource (not just scenarios).
- La main à la pate French site for teaching science in primary school (lots of interesting teacher-tested activities/scenarios).
See also more formal approaches: E.g. CSCL script, Learning design, Educational design language and educational modeling language. These articles include much more references.
- Schulmeister, R. (2005). Kriterien didaktischer Qualität im E-Learning zur Sicherung der Akzeptanz und Nachhaltigkeit. In D. Euler & S. Seufert (Hrsg.), E-Learning in Hochschulen und Bildungszentren, München: Oldenbourg, p. 487.
- Wichmann, A., Engler, J., & Hoppe, U. (2010). Sharing educational scenario designs in practitioner communities. In K. Gomez, L. Lyons, & J. Radinsky (Eds.), Learning in the Disciplines. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS 2010), Vol 2 (pp. 750-757). International Society of the Learning Sciences, Inc.