Using SVG with HTML5 tutorial

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1 Introduction

According to Wikipedia (retrieved April 1 2012), “Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is a family of specifications of an XML-based file format for two-dimensional vector graphics, both static and dynamic (i.e. interactive or animated). The SVG specification is an open standard that has been under development by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) since 1999. SVG images and their behaviors are defined in XML text files. This means that they can be searched, indexed, scripted and, if required, compressed. As XML files, SVG images can be created and edited with any text editor, but it is often more convenient to create them with drawing programs such as Inkscape. All major modern web browsers have at least some degree of support and render SVG markup directly, including Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer 9, Google Chrome, Opera and Safari. Earlier versions of Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE) do not support SVG natively.”.

SVG is part of the HTML 5 draft specification, i.e. SVG tags are part of the language and can be inline. We have seen it working since Chrome 9 and 10, Firefox 4, Opera 11 and Internet Explorer 9 (feb 2011). Support of SVG is still not complete, but rapidly improving. All major browser brands (except IE9) now offer very good support - Daniel K. Schneider 19:47, 1 April 2012 (CEST)

If you want to know whether your browser can handle SVG and HTML5, look at this See the When can I use Inline SVG in HTML5? compatibility table at caniuse.com.

Further reading:

See also:

2 Apprendre et réutiliser SVG

2.1 Apprendre SVG

La page | SVG Links (en anglais) présente un certain nombre de bons liens. Sinon, il est conseillé de commencer avec le Tutoriel SVG statique.

Si vous voulez aller en profondeur, utilisez

Respectez la syntaxe de SVG : Exemple minimal (non recommandé):

<svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
    <circle id="greencircle" cx="30" cy="30" r="30" fill="green" />
</svg>

Exemple incomplet qui défini la taille du canevas SVG. Par défaut la hauteur et la largeur sont en pixel. Il est possible d'utiliser des cm, mm, etc.

<svg height="200" with="600" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
      <!-- Des tags SVG ici .... -->
</svg>

Exemple incomplet pour permettre les liens (nécessaire pour les animations et les pages interactives !)

<svg height="6cm" width="10cm"> 
   xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
      <!-- Des tags SVG ici .... -->
</svg>

Si vous voulez tracer un bord, utilisez une propriété HTML CSS standard, par exemple :

<svg style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;" id="circle" height="60" width="120" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
      <!-- Des tags SVG ici .... -->
  </svg>
</svg>

2.2 Nettoyer le SVG

C'est difficile. Vous pouvez tenter d'importer un fichier dans un éditeur SVG et sauver de nouveau. Jusqu'à présent aucun éditeur ne peut gérer le HTML5 avec SVG inclu.

Si votre fichier SVG ne s'affiche pas à cause d'erreurs de syntaxe, essayez le validateur du W3C, il vous dira ce qui est faux et à quelle ligne.

  • http://validator.w3.org/
  • Il est aussi possible d'y envoyer un fichier HTML5 avec du SVG inclu. Faites attention d'avoir le bon doctype en haut : <!doctype html>

Copier des dessins Inkscape

Utiliser des desssins fait avec Inkscaoe demande souvent du travail supplémentaire car les coordonnées utilisées sont souvent étranges. La page Chapter 23. SVG and the Web (en anglais) fournit quelques conseils. En particulier, lisez Inkscape for the Web (toutjours en anglais). Le conseil le plus important est de quavegarder en SVG optimisé (Save as Optimzed SVG) qui ajoutera une viewbox si celle-ci est absente et ajustera la taille à 100%. L'image sera ainsi affichée en plein écran même si vous l'avez dessinée trop petite.


Suggested workflow (adapt to your needs) for making a typical Inkscape document web ready:

  1. Fit the document size to the picture size: Menu File->Document Properties. In the Custom size panel, open Resize page to content, then click Resize page to drawing or selection.
  2. Remove unused DEF's: File->Vacuum Defs.
  3. Optimize SVG': File -> Save as... -> Optimized SVG. Tick "Enable viewboxing in the save dialog. This operation will do several things, in particular, insert correct viewBox, width and height attributes.
  4. Remove non-standard SVG/Inkscape XML: File -> Save as... -> plain SVG (Since this operation will remove layers and other Inkscape specific information, keep a copy of the old file if necessary). As of Jan 2014, this can trigger a display error as shown in Using Inkscape for web animation. Reopen the saved file and the blackness may be gone ....

Again, consider keeping a copy of the original drawing. This procedure mail fail, in particular when drawings were made with non standard SVG ! You also can try to permute order, i.e. save as plain SVG first before you optimize.

Openclipart.org drawings

Most of these drawings were probably made with Inkscape and "posted as is" and you may have to clean up a bit as explained above. However, most drawings will work just fine. In addition, some SVG drawings at http://openclipart.org import just fine, e.g. the coconut tree do not include proprietary extensions. Notice that these are not illegal, the web browser just can and will ignore these.

<?xml version="1.0"?>
  <svg xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
       xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
       xmlns:cc="http://creativecommons.org/ns#"
       xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" 
       xmlns:svg="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" id="svg2" 
       viewBox="0 0 744.09 1052.4" version="1.1">
</svg>

This file doesn't include any proprietary Inkscape extensions. It just includes some extra vocabularies that is used to include various meta information (description, copyright, etc.). Below a file that shows both the original and a cleanup version. There isn't much difference, since we didn't remove extra space around the drawing, it appears a bit smaller.

Have a look:

Below is another example:

3 Comment inclure du SVG dans du HTML5

Il y a plusieurs façon d'inclure du SVG dans du HTML. La plus simple et la plus souvent utilisée est de l'inclure directement dans le document (inlining). Cependant dès que le SVG devient complexe cela devient difficile car le fichier peut devenir très grand.

Ici nous allons simplement montrer comment inclure des images SVG qui sont de la bonne taille. Plus ou moins n'importe quel mécanisme d'inclusion va marcher :

  • Copier/coller le code SVG à l'intérieur du code HTML (inlining)
  • Utiliser le tag HTML img
  • Utiliser le tag HTML object
  • Utiliser le tag HTML iframe
  • Utiliser du CSS (image en background)
  • Inclure du SVG à l'intérieur d'un autre SVG avec le tag image.

Nous expliquerons plus bas comment adapter la taille de l'image SVG incluse.

3.1 Inlining

N'oubliez pas la déclaration (ou les déclarations) de namespace dans l'élément SVG de plus haut niveau. Au minimum xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"

Exemple :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo</h1>

A nice green circle :
    <svg id="circle" height="200" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
      <circle id="greencircle" cx="30" cy="30" r="30" fill="green" />
    </svg>

    <hr>
    <address>Created by DKS. This is free code</address>
  </body>
</html>

Un exemple de SVG animé :

Remarque :

  • On peut également importer du SVG en utilisant le tag "image". Cependant, cela est seulement possible normalement avec le SVG statique. Cette méthode est développée dans un chapitre suivant

3.2 Inclure du SVG avec le tag img

Ceci ne marche qu'avec du SVG statique. Utilisez le tag object ou l'élément image de SVG pour inclure des animations et/ou des éléments interactifs.

Ecxemple :

Voici les éléments les plus importants de cet exemple :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo (embed with img src)</h1>

   <p> A nice green circle that was embeded using the img element:
   <img src="green-circle.svg" height="64" alt="Nice green circle"/>
</p>

3.3 Inclure du SVG avec le tag object

Exemple :

Voici les éléments les plus importants de cet exemple :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo (embed with object)</h1>

<p> A nice green circle that was embeded using the HTML "object" tag:
<object type="image/svg+xml" data="green-circle.svg" 
	width="64" height="64" border="1"></object>
</p>
</body>
</html>

3.4 Inclure du SVG avec le tag iframe

Exemple :

Voici les éléments les plus importants de cet exemple :

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo (embed with iframe)</h1>

<p> A nice green circle that was embeded using the HTML "iframe" tag:
<iframe src="green-circle.svg" 
	width="64" height="64" style="border:1;"></iframe>
</p>
<p>
Tips:
<iframe src="green-circle.svg" style="float:left;margin-right:1cm;" 
	width="64" height="40" style="border:1;"></iframe>
</p>
</body>
</html>

3.5 Utiliser du SVG comme image de fond en HTML 5

Exemple :

Voici les éléments les plus importants de cet exemple

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
    <style type="text/CSS">
      body {
      background-image: none, url('green-circle.svg');
      background-position: 50% 50%;
      background-repeat: no-repeat;
      }
    </style>
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo (embed with CSS background)</h1>

<p> A nice green circle that was embeded using CSS Background.
</p>
<p>Tips:</p>
<ul>
<li>SVG included as CSS can't be scripted and positioning is hard. Therefore only use this method for background illustrations.</li>
</ul>
</body>
</html>

3.6 Inclure du SVG via un élément SVG image

Assurez-vous que le SVG que vous incluez définisse bien sa taille en pourcentage ou que vous utiliez une viewbox.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo - embed svg file with SVG image</h1>

<p> A huge red circle that was embeded using the svg "image" tag:</p>
<svg id="circle" height="60" width="60" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <image x="0" y="0" height="60" width="60"  xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
</svg>
</body>

4 Adapter la taille et la position d'un graphique SVG

There exist various way of doing this. Our preferred method for static SVG images is to fix the original SVG graphic with a viewbox and size attributes and then import with the HTML img tag. The original SVG should look like this, i.e. include a viewBox that uses the original width and size of the drawing (to be adjusted to your drawing of course), and width and height set to 100%.

Fixing the original SVG code (see below how to do this with Inkscape)

<svg
   xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg"
   version="1.1"
   width="100%"
   height="100%"
   viewBox="0 0 684 648">

You then can simply set a height in your HTML code, e.g.

<img src="coconut.svg" height="100" alt="Nice coconut tree"/>

Life example:

  • Our second preferred method is to import the SVG graphic with its original size and then wrap it inside a scale transform as explained in more detail further down. Another method that also works very well is to fix the original SVG drawing as explained in the section about Inkscape and then just use the simple HTML image element.
<svg id="sir" height="116" width="106"
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">
<g transform="scale(0.1)">
  <image x="0" y="0" height="1140" width="1040"  xlink:href="like_a_sir_original.svg"/>
</g>
</svg>

4.1 Using the SVG transform attribute to change the size of a graphic

For starters, we suggest editing the SVG file and adding the following "transformation" code:

Right after the opening svg tag add this:

  <g transform="scale(0.1)">

Right before the closing svg tag add this:

  </g>

You can use this method within your SVG graphic in order to adapt the size of various parts. Just wrap them inside a g transform="scale(...)".

Success rate: This method is guaranteed to work since it relies on basic SVG technology that is now over 10 years old. However, this is not the most elegant solution since it requires editing the SVG file. See the next solution.

Simple live example:

The simple SVG file we are going to import in the following examples is huge-red-circle.svg. It looks like this:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<svg height="600" width="600" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
  <circle cx="50%" cy="50%" r="50%" fill="red" />
</svg>

4.2 Using the SVG image tag to import and adapt an SVG graphic

The next methods are fairly elegant, easy to understand and should work in all browsers. There are three variants. For now, I suggest to use variant B - DKS.

4.2.1 The simple solution

Let's recall how to use the SVG image tag:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo - embed svg file with SVG image</h1>

<p> A huge red circle that was embeded using the svg "image" tag:</p>
<svg id="circle" height="60" width="60" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <image x="0" y="0" height="60" width="60"  xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
</svg>
</body>

All you typically have to do is:

  • Figure out the proportions of the original SVG (look at the svg root element of the SVG file)
  • Define the height and width of the image with respect to your scaling needs.

In our example, the imported graphic's dimensions were 600 x 600 px. In order to get a circle 10 times smaller, we just dived x/10 and y/10.

  • If you can't see the picture, import the picture in its original size and set the canvevas size to the same dimensions. E.g. if the original canevas is 1000x400:
<svg id="circle" height="1000.7" width="400" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <image x="0" y="0" height="1000.7" width="400"  xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
</svg>

Now that you know that the picture and your code is ok, you may try to understand why you may not see a picture. Indeed, this simple method is not guaranteed to work with every SVG file. In particular it will not when the imported image is "badly" positioned. See the next solution, using a scale transform of the imported SVG, if don't want to learn how to fix that kind of problem in the imported SVG code. Let's illustrate this with an example. The like a Sir picture is positioned in negative y space as you can see in the following screenshot and code excerpt:

Fichier:Inkscape-svg-position.png
SVG picture in negative space
<g inkscape:label="Ebene 1" inkscape:groupmode="layer" id="layer1" transform="translate(445.66942,-924.04028)">

Solutions:

  • Open the SVG file with Inkscape and fix it. This way you also could get rid of all the extension tags (save as "plain SVG"). However, this may not be easy. The graphic is likely to be in a wrong position, because the author created paths with SVG path data that do not fit the "usual" x=0/y=0 coordinate system. Something one never should do ....
  • Use one of the methods below. That is: import the picutre with its original size, then scale it either with a scale transform (easier) or by adjusting the ViewBox.

Of course, you can move pictures The following shows how to reposition a "normal" image.

<svg id="circle" height="62" width="62" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <image x="1" y="1" height="60" width="60"  xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
</svg>

4.2.2 Import the graphic with its original size and scale the image

Below is another variant that seems is more robust with respect to drawings that use strange coordinates. We import the original huge circle with its original size, but we then scale transform it.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo - embed svg file with SVG image</h1>

<p> A huge red circle that was embeded using the svg "image" tag plus a scale transform:</p>
<svg id="circle" height="60" width="60" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <g transform="scale(0.1)">
    <image x="0" y="0" height="600" width="600" xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
  </g>
</svg>
</body>
</html>

Pay attention to the following tips:

  • Height and width of the image tag must correspond (roughly) to the size of the imported SVG. Look at its SVG root tag. If weight and height are missing in the SVG file add it yourself, if possible
  • Height and width of the svg root tag should somehow fit the scaled image. E.g. if you import a 100x200 and make it twice as big, then svg root dimensions should be at least 200x400.

4.2.3 Importing with original size and create a viewBox

This solution also offers a way to rescale. viewBox attributes can do more, but we won't cover that.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo - embed svg file with SVG image and viewBox</h1>

<p> A huge red circle that was embeded using the svg "image" tag plus a change of user coordinates with a a viewBox</p>
<svg id="circle" height="60" width="60" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <svg viewBox="0 0 600 600">
    <image x="0" y="0" height="600" width="600" xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
  </svg>
</svg>
</body>
</html>

Playing with viewBox

Possibilities are endless, but viewBox is hard to understand ...

The following code shows how to stretch and reposition (move the viewport up)

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <title>HTML5 SVG demo</title>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8" />
  </head>

  <body>
    <h1>HTML5 SVG Demo - embed svg file with SVG image and distort with viewBox</h1>

<p> A huge red circle that was embeded using the svg "image" tag plus a change of user coordinates with a a viewBox</p>
<svg style="border-style:solid;border-width:1px;" id="circle" height="60" width="120" 
     xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" >
  <svg viewBox="0 -300 600 1200" preserveAspectRatio="none" >
    <image x="0" y="0" height="600" width="600" xlink:href="huge-red-circle.svg" />
  </svg>
</svg>
</body>
</html>

4.3 Créer du texte qui entoure une image SVG

You can use ordinary HTML CSS properties to style the svg element. The following SVG graphic will float to the right:

<svg style="float:right" width="81" height="127" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
 <!-- Created with SVG-edit - http://svg-edit.googlecode.com/ -->
 <g>
  <title>Simple tree</title>
  <rect fill="#7f3f00" stroke="#000000" stroke-width="0" x="32.26172" y="50.26172" width="17" height="77" id="svg_3"/>
  <circle fill="#007f3f" stroke="#000000" stroke-width="0" cx="40.26172" cy="40.26172" r="40.26172" id="svg_1"/>
 </g>
</svg>

The following code would make an image float to the left and add a small margin:

<svg width="43" height="65" style="float:left;margin:5px;" 
    xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg">
....
</svg>

Live example that includes some long SVG code (look at the source):

5 Liens

Specifications (very technical reading !)
ViewBox