Comprendre en profondeur

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1 Comprendre "en profondeur" ou Deep understanding

2 Introduction

Chacun s'accorde à souhaiter des apprentissages qui dépassent le simple appris par coeur , leBachotage, et cherche à développer des apprentissage en profondeur ou durables ou réels et non-scolaires.

«For example, some teachers believe their students should “really understand,” others desire their students to “internalize knowledge,” still others want their students to “grasp the core or essence.” Do they all mean the same thing? Specifically, what does a student do who “really understands” which he does not do when he does not understand? Through reference to the Taxonomy . . . teachers should be able to define such nebulous terms.» (Bloom 1956 p. 1)

«Ideally, faculty want biology students to grow beyond memorization and other entry levels of cognition (Bloom et al., 1956). In particular, students should develop thinking skills that improve comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Uno, 1998; Allen and Tanner, 2002; Sundberg 2002).» in Campbell, A. M. (2003)

3 Tentatives de définition

Une définition opérationnelle de "comprendre en biologie" est que l'apprenant soit capable de prédire le comportement du système étudié dans une situation inconnue. Il y a donc des degrés dans la compréhension selon la distance par rapport aux situations connues dans lesquelles on peut prédire... Elle se réfère au paradigme actuel de la biologie qui est centrée sur l'étude des mécanismes sous-jacents. Lombard, F. (2009)

4 Evaluation de la compréhension en profondeur

«" If students can show teachers how they have accomplished the following, then the teacher has evidence of learning. If they can "explain it, solve it, correct it, modify it, adapt it, adapt it, demonstrate it, verify, defend, justify, or critique it, connect it to other ideas and issues, and make qualified and precise judgments," then they probably know it and can do it"» (Wiggins, G.; McTighe, J. 2000., p. 2).

«"The authors argue that in developing any curriculum, an educator should prioritize the material into three levels of desired student understanding: knowledge worth being familiar with, important knowledge and skills,and enduring understanding. As suggested by its phrasing, the first level contains material that is helpful as background. The second level contains material that is necessary for students to master in order to accomplish key tasks that demonstrate full understanding of the enduring concepts at the third level. Wiggins and McTighe (2000) argue that “student learning is incomplete if the unit or a course concluded without mastery of these essentials” (p. 9). The third level contains truly key ideas, concepts we want students to “retain after they've forgotten many of the details,” ideas that “go beyond discrete facts or skills to focus on larger concepts, principles, or processes.” (p. 10)."»

«The deep approach, allied to organisation and effort, and monitoring studying, describes a combination of cognitive processes, motivation and engagement which provides a proxy for some of the kinds of learning that we would expect students to use in higher education. Table 1: Aspects of approaches to learning and studying (Based partly on Entwistle, 1997 p 19) Deep approach

  • The intention to understand ideas for yourself
  • Making links between topics
  • Relating what is learned to the wider world
  • Looking for patterns and underlying principles
  • Checking evidence and relating it to conclusions
  • Examining logic and argument cautiously and critically
  • Becoming actively interested in the course content

Surface approach

  • The intention to cope minimally with course requirements
  • Studying without reflecting on purpose or strategy
  • Treating the course as unrelated bits of knowledge
  • Memorising without understanding
  • Accepting ideas without questioning them

Monitoring studying

  • Keeping your studies well focused
  • Monitoring understanding and addressing any problems
  • Monitoring and developing generic skills
  • Monitoring and enhancing the quality of work produced

Organisation and effort in studying

  • Organising your studies
  • Managing time and effort effectively
  • Maintaining concentration

» (ETL, 2003)


5 Identifier les concepts structurants

Pour comprendre en profondeur il faut identifier les concepts structurant : la littérature parle tantôt d' "élémenter" le savoir, des concepts structurants, des "big ideas"

Pour Astolfi (2008) il faut "Élémenter les savoirs plutôt que les abréger" en identifier les concepts qui sont comme des tremplins plutôt qu'une vulgarisation qui "ferme" le sujet et n'aide pas l'apprenant à progresser.

Pour le plan d'étude du Cycle d'Orientation "Les concepts structurants sont les outils de pensée dont la mise en oeuvre éclaire de manière assez systématique tous les problèmes traités en biologie."

Pour Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2000). Ce sont les concepts centraux autour desquels s'articule un chapitre entier. Ce sont les concepts qui relient les idées d'un chapitre entier et leur donnent la cohérence. Ils ont une force pédagogique : aider l'apprenant à construire des liens à partir les informations nombreuses et disparates. Des exemples

  • la sélection naturelle en évolution
  • le lien forme - fonction
  • l'écosystème
  • ...

"A big idea is a concept, theme, or issue that gives meaning and connection to discrete facts and skills. Here are some examples: adaptation; how form and function are related in systems; the distributive property in mathematics (whereby we can use any number of groupings and subgroupings to yield the "same" numbers); problem solving as the finding of useful models; the challenge of defining justice; and the need to focus on audience and purpose as a writer or speaker. In an education for understanding, a vital challenge is to highlight the big ideas, show how they prioritize the learning, and help students understand their value for making sense of all the "stuff" of content. " Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2000). p. 5

Voir aussi Concepts Structurants

6 Références

  • Bloom, B., Englehart, M., Furst, E., Hill, W., & Krathwohl, D. (1956). The classification of educational goals. In B. S. Bloom (Ed.), Taxonomy of educational objectives (Vol. Handbook I, cognitive domain.). New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green. .
  • Campbell, A. M. (2003). Public Access for Teaching Genomics, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics. Cell Biol Educ(2), 98–111.
  • Khodor, J., Halme, D. G., & Walker, G. C. (2004). Hierarchical Biology Concept Framework: A Tool for Course Design. Cell Biol Educ, 2004 Summer(3), 111 121. Ontologie des concepts biologiques structurée :
  • Lombard, F. (2009).biologie centrée sur l’humain ? Ou… Une biologie qui mette en perspective l’humain ? Paper presented at the Colloque : Enseignement secondaire, formation humaniste et société XVIe – XXIe siècle. 24-26 mars 09 Genève
  • Wiggins, G.; McTighe, J. Understanding by Design. Merrill Education/Prentice Hall; Upper Saddle River, NJ: 2000.

--Lombardf 28 II 010