Learning Material Markup Language

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1 Definition

Learning Material Markup Language (LMML) is both a framework and a series of educational modeling languages based on the the Passau Teachware Model (PTM). This project seems to be dead, e.g. their main web site (http://www.lmml.de/) is gone.

LMML can be described as a model-based XML framework for the semantic description of e-learning courseware. It is extensible by other XML languages (e.g. SMIL) and combinable with several metadata approaches.

Features
  • Document-oriented framework (can be used either bottum-up or top-down)
  • Publication to different target media
  • Supported by standard XML authoring tools
  • Extensible (authors can in specified ways extend the framework, this reminds a bit the documentation framework of DITA).

Daniel K. Schneider doesn't know if this project is still alive ...

Content Model

“ The modular structure of LMML teachware allows the fragmentation of a specific field in any granularity. That makes it possible to reuse LMML modules, beginning with multimedia elements like images, sound or animation, via content modules like motivation, definition or simple text paragraphs to course paragraphs, course chapters or even whole courses. A course cannot only be reused as a whole course, but as a paragraph of another course or a single paragraph can be reused as a whole course. Courses and paragraphs are both treated as modules in this modeling. That makes a smooth transition between the structure of a course and the structure of its contents. The separation of content and visualization facilitates the flexible reuse. A reused model integrates itself seamless in the new context and it is easy to adapt.” (retrieved 12:57, 30 May 2007 (MEST)).

Daniel K. Schneider thinks that LMML is a welcome alternative to the IMS Content Packaging. Both focus on courseware, but LMML models contents according to sound documentation principles, whereas IMS CP just implements menus to structure assets.

LMML contents can be published with a traditional Web server, i.e. rendering is done with a XSLT stylesheet. The Passau Knowledge Management System uses XSL style sheets that transform LMML contents into XSL-FO

2 The Passau Teachware Metamodel

“The Passau Teachware Metamodel describes generally the modular structure of eLearning contents. It can be instantiated for diverse fields of application like mathematics/computer science, operation research, financial planning or your own required field of application” ( [1], retrieved 12:57, 30 May 2007 (MEST)).

“The elearning content is organized modularly. It consists of various modules. Each module may contain further modules itself. The basic units of information in this hierarchy are called Content Modules, e.g. Definiton or Motivation. Their content can be structured as lists or tables, containing static or dynamic media objects, for instance picture, animation, text, which are linked with an open plug-in-interface.”([2], retrieved 12:57, 30 May 2007 (MEST)).

Module associations in the Passau Teachware Metamodel - ©2007 IFIS. Reproduced without asking for permission

The framework is extensible, i.e. individual elearning applications have to fulfill specific requirements but “modules types such as algorithms, descriptions or hints can be added as easily as existing types can be specialized”.

"My" Passau Teachware Metamodel ©2007 IFIS. Reproduced without asking for permission

“LMML modules can be associated with other LMML modules in different ways. The Passau Teachware Model provides following types of association: defined, illustrated and other. These types can be adapted and extended accordingly to the field of application. The single LMML modules and their association are described by metadata. Therefore, LMML provides a basic set of metadata: general (author, title, catchwords, etc), time-related (creation-, modification-, release-, expiation-date, etc.) and educational (difficulty, abstraction, etc.)”. ([3], retrieved 12:57, 30 May 2007 (MEST)).

Passau Teachware Metamodel ©2007 IFIS. Reproduced without asking for permission

In the same way, associations and metadata also can be extended in three ways, i.e. references, new relations (e.g. prerequisites) and metadata

"My" Module associations in the Passau Teachware Metamodel ©2007 IFIS. Reproduced without asking for permission

2.1 Didactical reference model

LMML focuses on definition of content modules and relationship between model. It does not provide an overall pedagogical framework (as for instance IMS Learning Design or PALO claim to). However, the authors of LMML did develop a Didactical Reference Model based on some classical Instructional systems design model was developed.

Didactical Reference Model, ©2007 IFIS. Reproduced without asking for permission

3 Software / Tools

LMML contents can be run in the Passau Knowledge Management System (PaKMaS) . In addition there exist a series of additional tools like: CourseBrowser, CourseComposer, ContentConverter, ContentPublisher, AssessmentCenter.

PaKMaS is a softwaresuite that can export a courseware to static formats (HTML/PDF) or run it on a platform.

Daniel K. Schneider doesn't know where these tools are available and under what conditions...

4 The DTD

Since the DTD for LMML is extensible, it is divided into several module files by the use of external parameters.

4.1 The driver module

Typically, one needs the LMML framework and its modules defined parameter entities. The single modules are "cmodel", "metadata", "datatypes", "multimedia", "table", "list", "link" and "charent". Each LMLL language is defined in a "driver module" that whill include other files. As an example, the DTD for Computer-Science teaching LMML-CS.dtd would include both this framework and extra extensions.

%lmml-framework.mod;
%lmml-cs-spec.mod;
LMML Computer Science Teaching DTD

Here is the DTD for the LMLL-CS driver module:

<!-- LMML-CS-Content DTD......................................... -->
<!-- file: LMML-CS.dtd..................................... -->
<!--  
    This is LMML-CS, a language for specifying teachware content from
    the domain of application of teaching and learning computer science as
    described in Christian Suess, Burkhard Freitag, Peter Broessler,
    "Metamodeling for Web-Based Teachware Management". In: P.P Chen,
    D.W. Embley, J. Kouloumdijan, S.W. Liddle and J.F. Roddick, Proc. Intl. ER'99
    Workshop on the World-Wide Web and Conceptual Modeling, Nov. 15-18 1999,
    Paris, France. LNCS 1727, Springer Verlag,
    http://im.fmi.uni-passau.de/db/literatur.php3?key=SFB99

    It is an implementation of the XML binding of the teachware-specific meta-model
    described in Christian Suess, Adaptive Knowledge Management: A Meta-Modeling
    Approach and its Binding to XML". In: Proceedings 11. Workshop Grundlagen von Datenbanken,
    Arbeitskreis Grundlagen von Informationssystemen im GI-Fachausschuss 2.5, Ploen, Germany, 2000,
    http://im.fmi.uni-passau.de/db/literatur.php3?key=S00

    This is a driver file corresponding to the modulraization mechanism as
    defined in "Building XHTML Modules",  W3C Working Draft 5 January 2000 ,
    http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xhtml-building-20000105

    Please use this formal public identifier to identify it:
          "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//DTD LMML-CS 1.1//EN"
    Please use this formal system identifier to identify it:
          "LMML-CS.dtd"

    Author:           Christian Suess <lmml@ifis.uni-passau.de>
    Date:              Wednesday 12-Apr-2000   
    Last Changes:     Wednesday 12-Oct-2000

    This is SUBJECT TO CHANGE, pending final approval.
    Please send your questions, bug reports, comments, or
    suggestions for changes to lmml@ifis.uni-passau.de
-->
<!--
 _______________________________________________________________________
|                                                   
|   Copyright 1999-2000 Christian Suess, University of Passau, Germany       
|   
|   All rights reserved.
|                                   
|   Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this document for
|   any purposes and without fee is hereby granted in perpetuity,
|   provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice
|   appear in all copies of this document. 
|                                   
|   WE PROVIDE THIS DOCUMENT TO USER "AS IS."  WE DISCLAIM ALL  
|   WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENT,  
|   INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A   
|   PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  IN NO EVENT SHALL WE BE LIABLE FOR ANY 
|   DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES,    
|   OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR  
|   PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, OR OTHER 
|   TORTUOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF    
|   THIS DOCUMENT.
|
|   If you modify the LMML modules and drivers in any way, label your DTDs as a
|   variant of LMML. 
|_______________________________________________________________________
-->
<!ENTITY % LMML.version "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//DTD LMML-CS 1.1//EN">
<!ENTITY % LMML.ns "lmml">
<!-- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -->
<!-- Computer science-specific content models .................... -->
<!ENTITY % Contentobject.extra "| proposition | theorem | proof | algorithm | formula">
<!ENTITY % Incontentobject.extra "| math | code | LMMLcode">
<!ENTITY % Inline.extra "| math | code | LMMLcode">
<!-- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -->
<!-- Text extension entities ................................... -->
<!ENTITY % Multimedia.extra "| LMMLtext">
<!ENTITY % Bibitem.content "(LMMLtext)">
<!ENTITY % Inline.nolink.class "| emphasized | quoted | annotated | defined | formatted %Inline.extra;">
<!-- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -->
<!-- Modular Framework Module  ................................... -->
<!ENTITY % lmml-framework.mod SYSTEM "LMML11-framework-10.mod">
%lmml-framework.mod;
<!-- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -->
<!-- Text extension ........................... -->
<!ENTITY % lmml-text.extenstion "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-text.extenstion;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-text.ext
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Text Extension 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-text-10.ext" >
         %lmml-text.ext;]]>
<!-- ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: -->
<!-- Computer science-specific modules ........................... -->
<!ENTITY % lmml-cs-spec.mod SYSTEM "LMML11-CS-spec-10.mod">
%lmml-cs-spec.mod;
<!-- end of driver LMML-CS.dtd.................................................. -->

4.2 The LMML framework module

This module contains the modular LMLL framework.

<!-- LMML 1.1 Modular Framework Module  ....................................... -->
<!-- file: LMML11-framework-10.mod ............................................ -->
<!--
    This is the modular Learning Material Markup Language, an implementation
    of the XML binding of the teachware-specific meta-model described in
    Christian Suess, Adaptive Knowledge Management: A Meta-Modeling
    Approach and its Binding to XML". In: Proceedings 11. Workshop Grundlagen
    von Datenbanken, Arbeitskreis Grundlagen von Informationssystemen im
    GI-Fachausschuss 2.5, Ploen, Germany, 2000,
    http://im.fmi.uni-passau.de/db/literatur.php3?key=S00

    This is a module file corresponding to the modularization mechanism as
    defined in "Building XHTML Modules",  W3C Working Draft 5 January 2000 ,
    http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xhtml-building-20000105

    Please use this formal public identifier to identify it:
        "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Modular Framework 1.0//EN"
    Please use this formal system identifier to identify it:
        "LMML11-framework-10.mod"

    Author:         Christian Suess <lmml@ifis.uni-passau.de>
    Date:           Wednesday 12-Apr-2000   
    Last Changes:   Wednesday 06-Sep-2000

    This is SUBJECT TO CHANGE, pending final approval.
    Please send your questions, bug reports, comments, or
    suggestions for changes to lmml@ifis.uni-passau.de
-->
<!--
    Modular Framework
    is required by all LMML content DTDs. It instantiates the
    modules needed to support the LMML modularization model, including:

                 +  characters 
                 +  datatypes
                 +  metadata
                 +  multimedia
                 +  links
                 +  tables
                 +  lists
                 +  conceptual model
-->
<!--
 _______________________________________________________________________
|                                                   
|   Copyright 1999-2000 Christian Suess, University of Passau, Germany       
|   
|   All rights reserved.
|                                   
|   Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this document for
|   any purposes and without fee is hereby granted in perpetuity,
|   provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice
|   appear in all copies of this document. 
|                                   
|   WE PROVIDE THIS DOCUMENT TO USER "AS IS."  WE DISCLAIM ALL  
|   WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENT,  
|   INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A   
|   PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  IN NO EVENT SHALL WE BE LIABLE FOR ANY 
|   DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES,    
|   OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR  
|   PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, OR OTHER 
|   TORTUOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF    
|   THIS DOCUMENT.
|
|   If you modify the LMML modules and drivers in any way, label your DTDs
|   as a variant of LMML.
|_______________________________________________________________________
-->
<!--================ LMML modules ==================================-->
<!--================ LMML character entities =======================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-charent.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-charent.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-charent.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Character Entities 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-charent-10.mod" >
         %lmml-charent.mod;]]>
<!--================ LMML datatypes =================================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-datatypes.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-datatypes.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-datatypes.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Datatypes 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-datatypes-10.mod">
         %lmml-datatypes.mod;]]>
<!--================ LMML metadata =================================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-metadata.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-metadata.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-metadata.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Metadata 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-metadata-10.mod" >
         %lmml-metadata.mod;]]>
<!--================ LMML link =====================================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-link.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-link.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-link.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Link 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-link-10.mod" >
         %lmml-link.mod;]]>
<!--================ LMML multimedia ===============================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-multimedia.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-multimedia.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-multimedia.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Multimedia 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-multimedia-10.mod" >
         %lmml-multimedia.mod;]]>
<!--================================================================-->
<!ENTITY % List.class "| olist | ulist">
<!ENTITY % Tabledata.extra "%List.class;">
<!--================ LMML table ====================================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-table.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-table.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-table.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Table 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-table-10.mod" >
         %lmml-table.mod;]]>
<!--================================================================-->
<!ENTITY % Incontentobject.nolist.class "%Multimedia.class; %Table.class;">
<!--================ LMML list =====================================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-list.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-list.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-list.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 List 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-list-10.mod" >
         %lmml-list.mod;]]>
<!--================================================================-->
<!ENTITY % Incontentobject.extra "">
<!ENTITY % Incontentobject.class "%Multimedia.class; %Table.class; %List.class; %Incontentobject.extra;">
<!--================ LMML cmodel ====================================-->
<!ENTITY % lmml-cmodel.module "INCLUDE">
<![%lmml-cmodel.module;[
         <!ENTITY % lmml-cmodel.mod
           PUBLIC "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Conceptual Model 1.0//EN"
                  "LMML11-cmodel-10.mod" >
         %lmml-cmodel.mod;]]>
<!-- end of LMML11-framework-10.mod -->

4.3 The Conceptual (Content) Module

<!-- LMML 1.1 Conceptual Model Module ............................................. -->
<!-- file: LMML11-cmodel-10.mod ............................................. -->
<!--
    This is the modular Learning Material Markup Language, an implementation
    of the XML binding of the teachware-specific meta-model described in
    Christian Suess, Adaptive Knowledge Management: A Meta-Modeling
    Approach and its Binding to XML". In: Proceedings 11. Workshop Grundlagen
    von Datenbanken, Arbeitskreis Grundlagen von Informationssystemen im
    GI-Fachausschuss 2.5, Ploen, Germany, 2000,
    http://im.fmi.uni-passau.de/db/literatur.php3?key=S0pädagogische modellierungssprachen0

    This is a module file corresponding to the modularization mechanism as
    defined in "Building XHTML Modules",  W3C Working Draft 5 January 2000 ,
    http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/WD-xhtml-building-20000105

    Please use this formal public identifier to identify it:
        "-//DE.UNI-PASSAU.IM//ENTITIES LMML 1.1 Conceptual Model 1.0//EN"
    Please use this formal system identifier to identify it:
        "LMML11-cmodel-10.mod"

    Author:         Christian Suess <lmml@ifis.uni-passau.de>
    Date:           Wednesday 12-Apr-2000   
    Last Changes:   Wednesday 12-Oct-2000

    This is SUBJECT TO CHANGE, pending final approval.
    Please send your questions, bug reports, comments, or
    suggestions for changes to lmml@ifis.uni-passau.de
-->
<!--
    Conceptual Modelpädagogische modellierungssprachen

    This module replaces the LMML 1.0 Conceptual Model module and the LMML 1.0 Structure
    Modul. It implements the XML Binding of the structure of teachware formaly known as LMSML
    and describes the groupings of elements that make up common content models for LMML formaly
    known as LMCML.

    Conceptual units elements now are replaced by sections having corresponding type attributes,
    e.g. a <courseUnit> now is replaced by a <section type="course">.

    LMML has four basic content models:

    %Inline.class;            		   character-level elements
    %Incontentobject.class;    block-like elements within ContentObjects
    %Contentobject.class;      block-like elements ContentObjects

-->
<!--
 _______________________________________________________________________
|                                                   
|   Copyright 1999-2000 Christian Suess, University of Passau, Germany       
|   
|   All rights reserved.
|                                   
|   Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this document for
|   any purposes and without fee is hereby granted in perpetuity,
|   provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice
|   appear in all copies of this document. 
|                                   
|   WE PROVIDE THIS DOCUMENT TO USER "AS IS."  WE DISCLAIM ALL  
|   WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO THIS DOCUMENT,  
|   INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A   
|   PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  IN NO EVENT SHALL WE BE LIABLE FOR ANY 
|   DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES,    
|   OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR  
|   PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE, OR OTHER 
|   TORTUOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OF    
|   THIS DOCUMENT.
|
|   If you modify the LMML modules and drivers in any way, label your DTDs
|   as a variant of LMML.
|_______________________________________________________________________
-->
<!--================ imported entities ===============================-->
<!-- from module LMML11-datatypes-10.mod -->
<!ENTITY % URI.datatype "">
<!-- from module LMML11-framework-10.mod -->
<!ELEMENT dummycmodel (#PCDATA)>
<!ENTITY % Incontentobject.class "dummycmodel">
<!-- from module LMML11-metadata-10.mod -->
<!ENTITY % Audience.attrib "">
<!ENTITY % Moduleproperties.attrib "">
<!-- from the driver file, e.g. LMML-CS.dtd or LMML-FP.dtd-->
<!ENTITY % LMML.version "">
<!ENTITY % LMML.ns "">
<!--================ content modules ==================================-->
<!ENTITY % Contentobject.extra "">
<!ENTITY % Contentobject.class "| motivation | conclusion | definition | paragraph | remark | example | exercise | illustration %Contentobject.extra;">
<!ELEMENT motivation (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST motivation
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!ELEMENT conclusion (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST conclusion
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!ELEMENT definition (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST definition
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!ELEMENT paragraph (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST paragraph
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!-- Teaching and coaching remarks. For footnotes use Inlineobject annotated -->
<!ELEMENT remark (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST remark
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
	%Audience.attrib; 
>
<!ELEMENT example (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST example
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!ELEMENT exercise (%Incontentobject.class; | (task, solution?))*>
<!ATTLIST exercise
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!ELEMENT task (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ELEMENT solution (%Incontentobject.class;)*>pädagogische modellierungssprachen
<!ELEMENT illustration (%Incontentobject.class;)*>
<!ATTLIST illustration
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!ENTITY % Bibitem.content "(#PCDATA)">
<!ELEMENT bibItem %Bibitem.content;>
<!ATTLIST bibItem
	bibKey ID #REQUIRED
>
<!-- =============== structure modules =====================================-->
<!ENTITY % Structuremodule.class "section | collection | glossary | bibliography">
<!-- At least sections and collections have some additional attributes ..........-->
<!ENTITY % Structuremodule.attrib "strategy (beh | con)  #IMPLIED
    type (course | exercise | coaching | example) #IMPLIED
">
<!-- additional attrib: sort order (by title, by author etc.) -->
<!--================ behaviouristic StructureModules ===================================-->
<!--================ StructureModule Section ===================================-->
<!ENTITY % Section.content.extra "">
<!ENTITY % Section.content "%Structuremodule.class; %Contentobject.class; %Section.content.extra;">
<!ELEMENT section (%Section.content;)*>
<!ATTLIST section
	%Structuremodule.attrib; 
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; pädagogische modellierungssprachen
>
<!--================ constructivistic StructureModules ===================================-->
<!--================ structure module collection ===================================-->
<!ENTITY % Collection.content.extra "">
<!ENTITY % Collection.content "%Structuremodule.class; %Contentobject.class; %Collection.content.extra;">
<!ELEMENT collection (%Collection.content;)*>
<!ATTLIST collection
	%Structuremodule.attrib; 
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!--================ structure module glossary ===================================-->
<!ENTITY % Glossary.content.extra "">
<!ENTITY % Glossary.content "definition %Glossary.content.extra;">
<!ELEMENT glossary (%Glossary.content;)*>
<!ATTLIST glossary
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!--================ structure module bibliography ===================================-->
<!ENTITY % Bibliography.content.extra "">
<!ENTITY % Bibliography.content "bibItem %Bibliography.content.extra;">
<!ELEMENT bibliography (%Bibliography.content;)*>
<!ATTLIST bibliography
	%Moduleproperties.attrib; 
>
<!--================ document element  =================================-->
<!ENTITY % LMML.content "%Structuremodule.class; %Contentobject.class;">
<!ELEMENT lmml (%LMML.content;)>
<!ENTITY % LMML.version.attrib "version      CDATA     #FIXED '%LMML.version;'">
<!ATTLIST lmml
	%LMML.version.attrib; 
>
<!-- end of LMML11-cmodel-10.mod -->

4.4 Other modules

  • Not shown here, you may get the zip file from the lmll site and look at its contents by yourself :)

5 Links

Main LMML web site
PaKMaS
Talks

A Teachware Management Framework forMultiple Teaching Strategies, (ED-MEDIA 2000, 26.6.-1.7.2000, Montreal, Canada.)

6 Other

7 References

  • Freitag, Burkhard (2002). LMML - Eine Sprachfamilie für eLearning Content. In: Workshop E-Learning Content auf Basis von XML der Informatik 2002, Konferenz der Gesellschaft für Informatik, Dortmund, 2002 PDF
  • Suess Christian; Burkhard Freitag and Peter Broessler, "Metamodeling for Web-Based Teachware Management". In: P.P Chen, D.W. Embley, J. Kouloumdijan, S.W. Liddle and J.F. Roddick, Proc. Intl. ER'99 Workshop on the World-Wide Web and Conceptual Modeling, Nov. 15-18 1999, Paris, France. LNCS 1727, Springer Verlag, PDF
  • Süß, Christian, Burkhard Freitag (2002): LMML - The Learning Material Markup Language Framework. In: Int. Worshop ICL, Villach, Austria, Sept. 2002. PDF
  • Süß, Christian and Burkhard Freitag: Learning Material Markup Language LMML. IFIS Report 2001/03, 2001 PDF
  • Süß Christian and Burkhard Freitag: Passau Knowledge Management System PaKMaS. IFIS Report 2001/02, 2001 PDF
  • Weitl Franz; Christian Süß, Rudolf Kammerl, Burkhard Freitag (2002). Presenting Complex e-Learning Content on the Web: A Didactical Reference Model. In: Proceedings of e-learn 2002 world conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education, 2002. PDF