PALO

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Draft

1 Definition

PALO is an educational modeling language and a system.


PALO is a proposal of Educative Modelling Language to describe and design learning content and learning environments at a high level of abstraction using learning content ontologies and conceptual maps to search and retrieve small-granularity Learning Objects.

PALO is based on a reference framework to design educative content based in levels of abstraction. Each level identifies a certain group of related components or elements of a learning resource. The language allows to define teaching strategies by mean of the definition of specific DTD's called instructional templates . This templates are a general type of PALO document that specially suits for a given instructional or teaching purpose.

PALO has been designed to be a technology-independent representation of a learning reseource, thus allowing educative content interchange , interoperability, mantainability and reusability. A PALO description of a learning content (a *.palo file) can be turned into a variety of learning scenarios (each one built using an specific delivery format) via a compiling process.

(PALO language Home Page, retrieved 18:21, 29 May 2007 (MEST).

2 Structure

Google translation from Spanish of http://sensei.ieec.uned.es/%7Emiguel/tesis/node30.html ... almost understandable ;)

  • Content: It is the knowledge that, modelizado in the surroundings, is study object during the education process. The content is modelizado of external and independent form of the structure of the surroundings. The references to these components can be direct or by means of the use of properties and didactic or instruccionales relations.
  • Tasks: The tasks are the activities that the user of the surroundings makes to on approval practice or to put the knowledge assimilated in the study matter. They are basic educational elements that allow the knowledge acquisition, the pursuit, the evaluation of the student and the interaction with the professor.
  • Structure: It defines the composition and the group of contents and tasks. It also determines the model of navigation by the material and provides an index of he himself.
  • Planning: The planning includes/understands logistic associate to the use of the surroundings and the temporary requirements for its use.
  • Management: It is the information that controls the accesses, the operation and the developed activity in the surroundings.

PALO can be described in terms of three components

  • The DTD: An instructional template defining the tags and possible tag combinations for the given template. It is a SGML-based DTD
  • The PALO File: An SGML file that contains declarative description of a learning environment according to the instructional template above (DTD).
  • The resulting environment after the compilation process of the PALO File using the PALO Compiler. There are three kinds:
    1. A demo environment with no interactivity, but having all the content.
    2. An interactive environment using signed java applets. Students can install this environment, and work off-line. From time to time they can connect to our server and send the work done.
    3. An interactive environment to be used remotely.

3 SGML DTDs

“The PALO Language is defined by a set of DTD's that describe different documents, each one to be used for an specific instructional purpose. These DTD's describe a general template that can be instantiated into an SGML file. In the PALO system, the family of DTD's are known as instructional templates.” [1], retrieved 18:21, 29 May 2007 (MEST).

3.1 GUIA

<!ELEMENT guia     - - ((#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*), gestion , directorio ,(#PCDATA & lista* & tema+))>

<!ATTLIST guia
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	dir-uso	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT directorio - - (objetivos,creditos,instrucciones,requisitos)>

<!ELEMENT objetivos     - - (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST objetivos
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT creditos     - - (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST creditos
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT instrucciones     - -  (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST instrucciones
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT requisitos     - -  (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST requisitos
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT talcual     - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST talcual
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	tipo	(html	|
  		 latex  |
		 daylight |
                 jme  )  #REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT tema     - - ((#PCDATA , metainformacion?) & #PCDATA & lista* & talcual* & subtema* & glosario*)>

<!ATTLIST tema
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT subtema  - - ((#PCDATA & lista* & talcual* & glosario*), seccion+)>

<!ATTLIST subtema
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>
<!ELEMENT seccion  - - ((#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*) & elemento* & relacion* & glosario*)>

<!ATTLIST seccion
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	(contenido  |
                 utilidad   |
		 conceptos  |
		 ejercicios |
		 errores    |
		 cuestiones |
		 temporizacion ) #REQUIRED
        ref      NMTOKEN         #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT lista  - - (#PCDATA & item+)>

<!ELEMENT item  - - (#PCDATA & elemento* & relacion* & glosario*)>

<!ELEMENT elemento - - (#PCDATA , enlaces?)>

<!ATTLIST elemento
	id	  ID 	 	 #IMPLIED
	dominio	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	nombre	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	categoria NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
        atr-etiqueta NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED
        atr-contenido NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED
	faq       ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED> 

<!ELEMENT relacion - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST relacion
	id	  ID 	 	 #IMPLIED
	nombre	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	dominio	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	sujeto	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED
	atrib	  NMTOKEN 	 #IMPLIED
	categoria NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED> 

<!ELEMENT enlaces - - (#PCDATA & elemento* & relacion*)>

<!ATTLIST enlaces
	id	  ID 	 	 #IMPLIED> <!ENTITY lt "menorque">
<!ENTITY gt "mayorque">
<!ENTITY amp "ampersand">
<!ENTITY quot "quote"> <!ELEMENT glosario - - (#PCDATA & referencia+) >
<!ATTLIST glosario
	  id	        ID 	           #IMPLIED
          categoria	NMTOKEN		   #REQUIRED
          dominio	NMTOKEN		   #REQUIRED
          atr-etiqueta  NMTOKEN	           #REQUIRED
          atr-contenido NMTOKEN	           #REQUIRED          
          traza		(si|no)	   	   #IMPLIED
          orden		(alfabetico | secuencial)	alfabetico>

<!ELEMENT referencia - - (#PCDATA) >
<!ATTLIST referencia
	id	  ID 	         #IMPLIED
	nombre	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	dominio	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
        atr-contenido NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED > 

<!ELEMENT paseo - - (#PCDATA & contenido-paseo) >
<!ATTLIST paseo
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT contenido-paseo - - (#PCDATA & talcual* & paseo*) >

<!ELEMENT gestion - - (#PCDATA, bdobjetos+ , bdtareas+ , metainformacion)>

<!ELEMENT bdobjetos  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST bdobjetos
	id	  ID 	 	  	  #IMPLIED
	tipo	  (pruebas | explotacion) #REQUIRED
        sgdb      (mSQL | Oracle)                  #REQUIRED
	lugar	  NMTOKEN	 	  #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT bdtareas  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST bdtareas
	id	  ID 	 	 	  #IMPLIED
	tipo	  (pruebas | explotacion) #REQUIRED
        sgdb      (mSQL | Oracle)                  #REQUIRED
	lugar	  NMTOKEN	 	  #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT metainformacion - - (contenido & copyright & instancia)>
<!ATTLIST metainformacion
	id	  ID 	 	 	#IMPLIED
	tipo	  (dc | ims | ieee)	#REQUIRED
	cod	  (rfc2731)	 	#REQUIRED> 

<!ELEMENT contenido  - - (titulo & materia & descripcion & fuente & lenguaje & relacionado & ambito)>

<!ELEMENT copyright  - - (autor & editor & colaborador & derechos)>

<!ELEMENT instancia  - - (fecha & tipo & formato & identificador)>

<!ELEMENT titulo  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT materia  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT descripcion  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT fuente  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT lenguaje  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT relacionado  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT ambito  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ELEMENT autor  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT editor  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT colaborador  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT derechos  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ELEMENT fecha  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT tipo  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT formato  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT identificador  - - (#PCDATA)>

3.2 PED

<!ELEMENT ped     - - ((#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*), gestion , directorio, apartado+)>

<!ATTLIST ped
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	dir-uso	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	dir-correccion	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED
	fecha        NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT directorio - - (objetivos,creditos,instrucciones,requisitos)>

<!ELEMENT objetivos     - - (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST objetivos
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT creditos     - - (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST creditos
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT instrucciones     - -  (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST instrucciones
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT requisitos     - -  (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual*)>

<!ATTLIST requisitos
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT talcual     - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST talcual
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	tipo	(html	|
  		 latex  |
		 daylight |
                 jme  )  #REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT tarea - - (((#PCDATA & talcual*) | elemento | simulacion ) & calificador* )>

<!ATTLIST tarea 
	id		ID			#IMPLIED
 	nombre		NMTOKEN		#REQUIRED
	tipo		(texto 
			| latex 
                        | test 
                        | smiles 
                        | fichero 
                        | simulacion)		#REQUIRED
	traza		(si | no) 		#IMPLIED
	etiqueta	NMTOKEN		#IMPLIED
	puntuable	(si|no)		#IMPLIED
	prerrequisito	NMTOKEN		#IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT simulacion ((#PCDATA | talcual) | elemento | herramienta )>
<!ATTLIST simulacion 
	id		ID			#IMPLIED
 	nombre		NMTOKEN		#REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT herramienta (#PCDATA | talcual)>
<!ATTLIST herramienta 
	id		ID			#IMPLIED
	tipo		(logica | fisica) 	#REQUIRED
	url		NMTOKEN		#REQUIRED
	traza		(si | no) 		#REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT calificador - - (#PCDATA & lista*)>

<!ATTLIST calificador
	id	  	ID 	 	#IMPLIED
	peso            NMTOKEN         #REQUIRED>

<!ELEMENT cuestionario - - (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual* & tarea+)>

<!ATTLIST cuestionario
	id	  	ID 	 	#IMPLIED
	nombre  	NMTOKEN	 	#REQUIRED
	etiqueta        NMTOKEN	        #IMPLIED
	traza           ( si | no )     #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT apartado  - - ((#PCDATA & lista* & talcual* & cuestionario* & elemento* & relacion* & tarea* & glosario*), subapartado+)>

<!ATTLIST apartado
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT subapartado  - - (#PCDATA & lista* & talcual* & elemento* & relacion* & tarea* & glosario*)>

<!ATTLIST subapartado
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	 NMTOKEN  #REQUIRED
        ref      NMTOKEN         #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>


<!ELEMENT lista  - - (#PCDATA & item+)>

<!ELEMENT item  - - (#PCDATA & elemento* & relacion* & glosario* )>


<!ELEMENT elemento - - (#PCDATA , enlaces?)>

<!ATTLIST elemento
	id	  ID 	 	 #IMPLIED
	dominio	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	nombre	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	categoria NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
        atr-etiqueta NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED
        atr-contenido NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED
	faq       ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>


<!ELEMENT relacion - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST relacion
	id	  ID 	 	 #IMPLIED
	nombre	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	dominio	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	sujeto	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	traza     (si | no)	 #IMPLIED
	atrib	  NMTOKEN 	 #IMPLIED
	categoria NMTOKEN	 #IMPLIED>


<!ELEMENT enlaces - - (#PCDATA & elemento* & relacion* & tarea* & cuestionario*)>

<!ATTLIST enlaces
	id	  ID 	 	 #IMPLIED>


<!ENTITY lt "menorque">
<!ENTITY gt "mayorque">
<!ENTITY amp "ampersand">
<!ENTITY quot "quote">


<!ELEMENT glosario - - (#PCDATA & referencia+) >
<!ATTLIST glosario
  	  id	        ID 	        #IMPLIED
          categoria	NMTOKEN		#REQUIRED
          dominio	NMTOKEN		#REQUIRED
          atr-etiqueta  NMTOKEN	        #REQUIRED
          atr-contenido NMTOKEN	        #REQUIRED          
          traza		(si|no)		#IMPLIED
          orden		(alfabetico | secuencial)	alfabetico>

<!ELEMENT referencia - - (#PCDATA) >
<!ATTLIST referencia
	id    	  ID 	         #IMPLIED
	nombre	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
	dominio	  NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED
        atr-contenido NMTOKEN	 #REQUIRED >


<!ELEMENT paseo - - (#PCDATA & contenido-paseo) >
<!ATTLIST paseo
	id	ID 	  #IMPLIED
	nombre	NMTOKEN	  #REQUIRED
	traza     ( si | no )	 #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT contenido-paseo - - (#PCDATA & talcual* & paseo*) >



<!ELEMENT gestion - - (#PCDATA, bdobjetos+ , bdtareas+ , metainformacion)>

<!ELEMENT bdobjetos  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST bdobjetos
	id	  ID 	 	  	  #IMPLIED
	tipo	  (pruebas | explotacion) #REQUIRED
        sgdb      (mSQL | Oracle)                  #REQUIRED
	lugar	  NMTOKEN	 	  #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT bdtareas  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ATTLIST bdtareas
	id	  ID 	 	 	  #IMPLIED
	tipo	  (pruebas | explotacion) #REQUIRED
        sgdb      (mSQL | Oracle)                  #REQUIRED
	lugar	  NMTOKEN	 	  #IMPLIED>

<!ELEMENT metainformacion - - (contenido & copyright & instancia)>
<!ATTLIST metainformacion
	id	  ID 	 	 	#IMPLIED
	tipo	  (dc | ims | ieee)	#REQUIRED
	cod	  (rfc2731)	 	#REQUIRED>


<!ELEMENT contenido  - - (titulo & materia & descripcion & fuente & lenguaje & relacionado & ambito)>

<!ELEMENT copyright  - - (autor & editor & colaborador & derechos)>

<!ELEMENT instancia  - - (fecha & tipo & formato & identificador)>

<!ELEMENT titulo  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT materia  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT descripcion  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT fuente  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT lenguaje  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT relacionado  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT ambito  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ELEMENT autor  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT editor  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT colaborador  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT derechos  - - (#PCDATA)>

<!ELEMENT fecha  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT tipo  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT formato  - - (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT identificador  - - (#PCDATA)>

4 Links

  • PALO Home Page. This page contains links to papers and talks, demoes and software.

5 References

PALO

Rodriguez-Artacho M. "Una Arquitectura Cognitiva para el Diseño de Entornos Telemáticos de Ensñanza y Aprendizaje", Ph. D. Thesis (In Spanish!), HTML

  • Overview of the PALO EML (IEEE Frontiers In Education FIE '99 Conference paper) HTML PDF
  • Uses of PALO to build Educational Web-sites (IFIP 99) [HTML] (Building Electronic Educational Environments, Kluwer Ac. Publishers, 1999) HTML
  • Ontologies for learning content modeling and their use with PALO Language [PDF] (TET '99 conference, Norway) PDF
  • PALO Language uses for Higher Education (Computers and Ed. in the 21st Century. Kluwer Ac. publishers, 2000) PDF
  • Constructivism & PALO Language (IEEE Frontiers in Education FIE '01 Conference) PDF
  • Rodriguez-Artacho M. and Verdejo, M. F. "Modeling Educational Content: The Cognitive Approach of the PALO Language", Journal of Educational Technology & Society (Vol. 7 # 3, 2004) PDF Preprint
Other
  • Mizoguchi, R. and Bourdeau, J. (2000). Using ontological engineering to overcome common AI-ED problems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 11.
  • Murray, T. (1996a). From story board to knowledge bases: The first paradigm shift in making CAI "intelligent". In Proceedings of the ED-MEDIA 96 Conference, pages 509-514, Boston, MA.