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  • The F(ear)E(nvy)A(nger)S(ympathy)P(leasure)-approach for designing positive feeling instruction postulates that the instructional designer has to analyze emotional problems before and during instruction (Astleitner, 2000: 175).

The FEASP model

According to Astleitner (2000: 175):

There are five basic categories of emotional conditions that the instructional designer must understand and use in order to produce instruction which is emotionally sound, " Fear" refers to a negative feeling arising from subjectively judging a situation as threatening or dangerous. "Envy" is a negative feeling resulting from the desire to get something that is possessed by others or not to lose something that one is possessing. "Anger" refers to a negative feeling coming from being hindered to reach a desired goal and being forced to an additional action. "Sympathy" is a positive feeling referring to an experience of feelings and orientations of other people who are in the need of help. "Pleasure" is a positive feeling based on mastering a situation with a deep devotion to an action.

Accordingly, Fear, envy, and anger should be reduced during instruction, sympathy and pleasure should be increased.

The following FEASP overview table is copyright by Astleitner, reproduced here with permission and retrieved 16:18, 27 May 2006 (MEST) from http://www.sbg.ac.at/erz/feasp/overview.htm by DKS)

This table associates all instructional strategies of the FEASP-approach with examples in traditional and technology-based instruction.

Instructional strategies Examples from traditional instruction Examples from instructional technology based instruction

Fear reduction
F1 Ensure success in learning Use well-proven motivational and cognitive instructional strategies Cognitive learning design
F2 Accept mistakes as opportunities for learning  Let student talk about their failures, their expectations, the reasons for errors, etc. Q&A, success statistics
F3 Induce relaxation Apply muscle relaxation, visual imagery, autogenics, or meditation Trainings via media players
F4 Be critical, but sustain a positive 
Train students in critical thinking, but also point out the beauty of things Cognitive tools (semantic networking) 
Envy reduction
E1 Encourage comparison with autobiographical and criterion reference points instead of social standards Show students their individual learning history Student progress tracking, using target lists
E2 Install consistent and transparent evaluating and grading Inform students in detail about guidelines for grading Programmed fact-based evaluation and feedback
E3 Inspire a sense of authenticity and openness Install "personal information boards" telling others who you are Personal homepages
E4 Avoid unequal distributed privileges among students Grant all students or no student access to private matters Rule-based granting of privileges
Anger reduction
A1 Stimulate the control of anger Show students how to reduce anger through counting backward Anger buttons
A2 Show multiple views of things Demonstrate how one problem can be solved through different operations Linked information
A3 Let anger be expressed in a 
constructive way
Do not accept escaping when interpersonal problem solving is necessary Anger-help option
A4 Do not show and accept any form of violence Avoid threatening gestures Non-violent action: motivational design 
Sympathy increase
S1 Intensify relationships Get students to know other students friends and families Synchronous and asynchronous communication tools
S2 Install sensitive interactions Reduce students` sulking and increase their directly asking for help On-/offline trainings for empathic communication
S3 Establish cooperative learning structures Use group investigations for cooperation Collaborative learning tools
S4 Implement peer helping programs Let students adopt children in need Social networks within the world-wide-web
Pleasure increase
P1 Enhance well-being Illustrate students a probabilistic view of the future User-friendly interface design
P2 Establish open learning opportunities Use self-instructional learning materials Virtual classrooms
P3 Use humor Produce funny comics with students Story/comic/cartoon production systems
P4 Install play-like activities Use simulation-based instructional games Instructional computer games

Note that the FEASP approach is not a closed theory, but an open research program telling people what to do in order to improve any kind of instruction in respect to emotional issues.


  • Astleitner, Hermann, Designing Emotionally Sound Instruction: The FEASP-Approach, (open online version, published in: Instructional Science, 2000, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 169-198 [1]
  • Astleitner, Hermann and Detlev Leutner (2000), Designing Instructional Technology from an Emotional Perspective, RTE, Volume 32, Number 4, Summer 2000.
  • J. Keller, Motivational Design of Instruction, in C. Reigeluth (ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 383-434, 1983.