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  • Emotional processes are based on the acceptance or rejection of objects and facts and have an evaluational relation to the world (Kuhl, 1986)"

See also: Flow theory and Motivation

Emotions in education research

“Academic emotions have largely been neglected by educational psychology, with the exception of test anxiety. In 5 qualitative studies, it was found that students experience a rich diversity of emotions in academic settings. Anxiety was reported most often, but overall, positive emotions were described no less frequently than negative emotions.” (Pekrun et ak. 2002, abstract).

Emotion in collaborative situations

(Molinari et al.)

Several types of measures:

  • looking orientation (e.g. eye movements)
  • facial expression
  • posture
  • physiological: sweat, breath, relative blood pressure, heart rate, etc.
  • voice

This multiple set of data could be used to implement group awareness tools allowing to share emotional states with a or several partner(s). In more simple versions, partners can be promoted to state their current emotional state from a list of predefined items.

Factors that could be observed in the individual's perception of the collaboration process

  • grounding and coordination
  • Convergence
  • Modeling of emotions
  • Argumentation and trans-activity

Instructional design models taking into account emotions

Educational technology

  • Tutoring systems that detect emotions. E.g. Viccari (2008:synopsis) “have observed that many educational systems, especially intelligent tutoring systems, are being implemented according to an agent paradigm. Therefore, researchers in education believe that the educational computing environments would be more pedagogically effective if they had mechanisms to show and recognize the student's emotions”
  • Systems that create or support emotions.
  • Systems that help students deal with emotions, e.g. reflect upon them, e.g. eSAMB.


(follow also the links to emotion-related instructional design models above !)

  • Astleitner, H. (2001). Designing Emotionally Sound Instruction. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28, 209-219. (see FEASP)
  • Aubé, M. (2005). Beyond Needs: Emotions and the Commitments Requirement. In Davis, D. N. (dir.), Visions of Mind: Architectures for Cognition and Affect. (p. 21-44). Hershey, PA : Idea Group. Inc.
  • Delfino Manuela, & Stefania Manca, Figurative language expressing emotion and motivation in a web based learning environment, Proceedings of the Symposium on Agents that Want and Like: Motivational and Emotional Roots of Cognition and Action, AISB'05 Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents. Proceedings PDF
  • Kuhl, J. (1986). Motivation and information. In R.M. Sorrentino & E.T. Higgins, eds, Handbook of Motivation and Cognition, pp. 404-434. Chichester: Wiley
  • Lisetti, C. & Nasoz, F. (2002). MAUI: A Multimodal Affective User Interface. Proceedings of the ACM Multimedia International Conference, Juan les Pins, France.
  • Martin, B., & Briggs, L. (1986). The affective and cognitive domains: Integration for instruction and research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications
  • MacFadden, R.J., Herie, M., Maiter, S. & Dumbrill, G. (2005). Achieving High Touch in High Tech: A Constructivist, Emotionally-Oriented Model of Web-Based Instruction. In Beaulaurier, R. and Haffey, M. (Eds.). Technology in Social Work Education. New York: Haworth Press.
  • Nkambou, R, Y Laporte, R Yatchou, G Gouradères(2003), Embodied emotional agent in intelligent training system, Studies In Fuzziness And Soft Computing, 2003.
  • Pekun R., Goetz T, Titz W, Perry P. Academic Emotions in Students' Self-Regulated Learning and Achievement: A Program of Qualitative and Quantitative Research, Educational Psychologist, 2002, Vol. 37, No. 2, Pages 91-105, doi:10.1207/S15326985EP3702_4 LEA Online.
  • Pekrun, R. H., Molfenter, S., Titz, W., Ingrisch, M., & Perry, R. P. (2000, April). Emotion, learning, and achievement in university students: Longitudinal studies. Presented as part of the symposium entitled "Exploring interlinkages: Motivation, self-regulation, emotion, and academic achievement." American Education Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
  • Scherer, K., Rimé, B., (1989). Les émotions, Textes de base en Psychologie , Paris:Delachaux et Niestlé.
  • Viccari, Rosa Maria; Patricia Augustin Jaques and Regina Verdin (eds.). (2008). Agent-Based Tutoring Systems by Cognitive and Affective Modeling, Information Science Reference, ISBN 1599047683. A table of contents is here
  • Wang N, WL Johnson, P Rizzo, E Shaw, RE Mayer (2005), Experimental Evaluation of Polite Interaction Tactics for Pedagogical Agents, International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, PDF or PDF
  • Wosnitza, Marold & Simone Volet, Significance Of Social And Emotional Dimensions In Online Learning (online preprint ?) Paper to be presented in the Symposium on Feelings and emotions in the learning process', at the 10th biennal Conference of the European Association for Research on Learning and Intruction (EARLI), Padova, Italy. PDF


  • Design & Emotion society raises issues and facilitates dialogue among practitioners, researchers, and industry, in order to integrate salient themes of emotional experience into the design profession. (nov 2011)