E2ML is an educational modeling language for describing instructional design issues such as learning goals, roles, actions, and resources.
2 Goal definitions and mappings
The goal (learning outcome) statement table is an orderly summary of the goals of the instruction. It includes several columns:
- Tag: an identifier
- Statement: A short verbal definition of the learning outcome
- Target: Who is concerned (e.g. all students)
- Stakeholder: Who is interested (e.g. the head of a company)
- Approach: Pedagogical strategy
- Importance: A numeric score.
These goals then can visualized “by mapping them on a visual grid or representation, such as Merrill’s Content-Performance Matrix (1983), the revised Bloom’s taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001), or the QUAIL model (Botturi, 2003 a; Botturi, 2004 a).” (Botturi, 2006).
3 Dependencies diagram
According to Botturi (2006), learning activities are represented by boxes and then should be related with arrwos: The relationships supported by E2ML are:
- Learning prerequisite: the first action provides a learning outcome that is the prerequisite for the second action (e.g., a lecture provides concepts for the following analysis work);
- Product: an activity produces some artefact that is required as input for a second one (e.g., a group-work activity produces a presentation which is shown during the following class discussion). Products can be name as arrow label (e.g., *mind-map");
- Aggregation: an activity can be a sub-activity of another activity. Finally actions can be grouped into trails or or logical groups of actions, e.g., all lectures, or all the actions that form a specific activity in a course, etc.
The dependencies described here are not learning sequences, but they allow to identify cross-unit connections and dependencies.
4 Activity flow
“The activity flow is a visualization of the instruction calendar and provides an overview of educational activities during the course time span. It is similar to a flowchart diagram that represents each learner’s path through the instruction. Actions are sequenced or ordered into more parallel branches. Each action can take place at a defined moment in time (e.g., on a particular date/time) or be allocated for free execution within a defined timeframe. Splits (branches) can be added to the action flow as advanced elements, indicating conditions, options, multiple selections, parallel activities or non-sequenced actions (or any-order actions, i.e., branches in the activity path where a number of activities should be completed in any order)” (Botturi, 2006).
5 Action diagrams
Action (activity) diagrams “provide a synthetic yet detailed description of the very bricks of the instruction: teaching and learning activities.”. These are the most complex construct in Botturi's design language.
- Luca Botturi's publications on Scientifc Commons
- Botturi, L. (2003 a). E2ML - A Modeling Language for Technology-dependent Educational Environments. EDMEDIA 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii
- Botturi, L. (2004). Visual Languages for Instructional Design: an Evaluation of the Perception of E2ML, PDF Preprint
- Botturi, L. (2006). E2ML: a visual instructional design language. PDF Preprint
- Botturi, L. (2006b). E2ML: A visual language for the design of instruction.Educational Technology, Research and Development 54(3) 265-293.
- Botturi, L. and K. Belfer (2006). Pedagogical patterns for online learning. ELEARN 2003. PDF Reprint
- Botturi, Luca (2007). E2ML, A tool for sketching instructional design, in Botturi, L., Stubbs, T. (eds.) (2007). Handbook of Visual Langauges in Instructional Design: Theories and Pratices. Hershey, PA: Idea Group