This is not even a rough draft as of Dec 2011. A few questions:
- In what respect is "computer literacy" part of "digital literacy" ?
- What computer literacy skills do learners and teachers need to learn/teach better ?
- What computer literacy skills do all (most) people need ?
- What computer literacy skills do people in in ICT-intensive jobs need ?
- What computer literacy skills do people have today, in particular the younger generation.
- What is needed for both creative and efficient e-learning. Is there an e-learning literacy ?
Wikipedia, retrieved nov. 2011, defines computer literacy as
“Computer literacy is an understanding of the concepts, terminology and operations that relate to general computer use. It is the essential knowledge needed to function independently with a computer. This functionality includes being able to solve and avoid problems, adapt to new situations, keep information organized and communicate effectively with other computer literate people.” (Computer Literacy USA, retrieved 19:22, 5 December 2011 (CET).
Computer literacy (being able to use computers and the Internet) can be understood of being different from informatics literacy (understand computer science principles and programming concepts). Digital literacy is an associated concept, i.e. somewhat represents a union of computer literacy with information literacy
- Digital literacy and information literacy
- Procedural literacy
- Digital divide
- ICT in society
- Informatics literacy
2 Computer literacy definitions
Sometimes, computer literacy is understood in a very broad sense (including digital, information, social networking literacies), but we will try to discuss and summarize more narrow definitions here:
2.1 Beyer's technology ladder
Definitions of what computer literacy should be probably vary quite a lot. However, most definitions seem to distinguish between some kind of very basic literacy and some kind of "functional" literacy, i.e. being able to use ICT efficiently in a given domain.
Beyers and Koorbanally(2009) define a double ICT/technological ladder:
|Level||School and business focus||Technology in society|
|4||ICT enabled innovator||Technology enabled innovator|
|3||ICT practitioner||Technology practitioner|
|2||ICT user (applications)||Technology user|
|1||Basic ICT literacy||Technology literacy|
In this ladder, digital divide only concerns level 1, i.e. skills that most kids somewhat do acquire in most western countries and that are not enough in order to be operational in an ICT rich profession or field of study. “Once basic literacy has been achieved, users need to be exposed to a variety of packages in order to become competent users. Beyond that is the mastery of the tools where ICT constitutes the main part of their future professions. The ultimate goal is the utilization of the power of ICTs to conceptualize and realize their creative talents in the form of innovations (and ultimately patents).” (Beyers and Koorbanally, 2009: 3).
2.2 CL-USA definition
The CL-USA definition (a private organization), retrieved 19:22, 5 December 2011 (CET), emphasizes that computer literacy implies both being able to do and knowing. The standards are not open to the public, but we can cite an example that illustrates the difference between doing and knowing.
The difference made by this organization between doing and knowing is interesting. However it is a bit misleading. Doing above refers to procedural surface knowledge and knowing to more conceptual knowledge. However, knowing the latter for real also means being able to do (e.g. configure a network, create a link with an URL, install a server, etc.)
3 Detailed lists of ICT skills
3.1 Basic technical ICT skills
- Basic hardware
- Turn on and off (properly)
- Insert external memory devices (CD-Rom, USB, SD cards, etc.) Be able to find conntectors if missing (e.g. on iPad things).
- Turn on/off WiFi
- Plugin in Ethernet cable and electricity.
- Difference between volatile (RAM) and non-volatile (disk) memory
- Add/remove a card or a harddrive
- The System
- Be able to distinguish special characters like | or / or \ or # and be able to find them on the keyboard (on European keyboards, in particular Macs, this not obvious)
- Be able to display file extensions (Windows)
- Create new file associations (Windows/Mac)
- Organize files in folders
- Manipulate files: move, delete, change permissions
- Updating (including setting preferences for automatic/manual updates)
- Install software on a PC or a mobile device
- Web page contents, web formats like PDF or Flash, and downloads.
- Executable files
- Understand firewalls and how to enable/disable
- Manage passwords in a reasonable way
- Interaction with common GUI's
- Shortcuts: E.g. CTRL-X, CTRL-C, CTRL-V, CTRL-A, CTRL-S on Windows
- Arrow keys and DEL vs. Backspace
- The Mac menu bar
- Finding the start button on Windows
- Context menus (and other not the left mouse operations). E.g. control-click on the Mac.
- Minimization, maximization, etc.
- Common applications
- File and Edit menus, in particular be able to open and save a file to a precise location
- Finding preferences/options
- Finding the big "start" button on MS applications
- Be able to find the help and find information in the help (including web pages if necessary)
- Networking and Internet
- Understand the difference between Internet and the Web
- Bluetooth (how to connect to devices)
- Using network drives
- File transfert with (S)FTP and equivalent Internet / web-based solutions
- Understand basic browser controls (forward/back, search box, URI box) and be able to set preferences (where to save files, menu bars, ...)
- Find/use all the tools of a standard portal (configure home page, define settings for receiving messages, post messages, edit contents, use the built-in instant messager, etc.)
- Use search engines efficiently. Know when to use specialized search engines.
- Be able to quickly evaluate some information
- Know specialized search engines, databases and repositories in your field of interest.
- Create and manage digital presence
- Bitmap vs. vector formats
- Compressed bitmap formats like JPG, PNG, GIF
- Email messages (when not to use attachments, quoting)
- Mangage privacy
- Stop touching the LCD of your teacher
3.2 Basic conceptual skills
- Find information, e.g. can formulate search terms
- Filter information
- Sort information
- Archive and retrieve
- Summarize information
- Be able to read a manual
- Be able to explore side-bars and menu-bars on a web-site
- Link information
3.3 Intermediate technical skills
- Common applications
- Be able to learn the basics of any not too difficult application within a week
- Be able to pick up a the basics of a formal language like HTML, CSS, SVG within a week.
- Be able to install portalware using an installer
- Be able to create a database with a GUI tool and define a user name and password
- Understand some very basic programming principles: Instructions v.s. comments, functions and function calls, selectors, conditionals, loops, variables and assigment
- digitalliteracy.gov (US government)
- http://www.un-gaid.org/ (United Nations dept. of economics and social affairs)
- ECDL Foundation
- Computer Literacy USA (private)
- Official initiatives
- Computer Science For All Obama administration initiative.
- University pages
- Computer Literacy Homepage (University of Minnesota Duluth)
- list of goals University of Colorado at Boulder
- Online pieces (e.g. blog entries)
- The 1% Rule: Charting citizen participation and Understanding the 1% Rule: Motivations (Church of customer blog, 2006).
- Stop Saying ``Computer Literacy! by Brian Harvey, Berkeley. Online version of a piece for Classroom Computer News in 1983 (retrieved 19:22, 5 December 2011 (CET))
- Clive Thompson on the New Literacy (Wired)
- Computer literacy tutorials online
- Guides to literacy teaching
- Support students and staff to work successfully with digital technologies, Jisc, March 2015.
- Online discussion
- Blog articles
- Why Johnny can’t code, by David Brin, Salon, Sep 14, 2006. Quote: “Microsoft and Apple and all the big-time education-computerizing reformers of the MIT Media Lab are failing, miserably. For all of their high-flown education initiatives (like the “$100 laptop”), they seem bent on providing information consumption devices, not tools that teach creative thinking and technological mastery. ”
- Arthur, C. (2006), What is the 1% rule? The Guardian July 20th. Retrieved November 10th from http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2006/jul/20/guardianweeklytechnologysection2
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