E-learning 2.0 is "learning as a network phenomenon", e.g. web of user-generated content (eg. Wikipedia), social networks and communities (entails a genuinely portable (and owned) identity, Networks of interactions (aggregate, remix, repurpose, feed forward) - syndication, The personal learning centre (Downes, retrieved 17:06, 27 April 2007 (MEST)
- As opposed to e-learning
“When we think of learning content today, we probably think of a learning object. Originating in the world of computer-based delivery (CBT) systems, learning objects were depicted as being like lego blocks or atoms, little bits of content that could be put together or organized. Standards bodies have refined the concept of learning objects into a rigorous form and have provided specifications on how to sequence and organize these bits of content into courses and package them for delivery as though they were books or training manuals. [...] As a consequence, the dominant learning technology employed today is a type of system that organizes and delivers online courses - the learning management system (LMS)”. (Downes, 2006, retrieved 17:06, 27 April 2007 (MEST) but links replaced by internal ones)
Now Downes argues that “the nature of the Internet, and just as importantly, the people using the Internet, has begun to change. These changes are sweeping across entire industries as a whole and are not unique to education; indeed, in many ways education has lagged behind some of these trends and is just beginning to feel their wake.” ....
Steve O'Hear (2006) argues in the same direction: “Like the web itself, the early promise of e-learning - that of empowerment - has not been fully realized. The experience of e-learning for many has been no more than a hand-out published online, coupled with a simple multiple-choice quiz. Hardly inspiring, let alone empowering. But by using these new web services, e-learning has the potential to become far more personal, social and flexible.” ().
“What is E-learning 2.0? Well first of all it's a rhetorical manoeuvre by e-learning suppliers and consultants to distance themselves from the failures of the first wave of e-learning. Secondly it appears to be the bastard neologism offspring of e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies.” (, retrieved 17:06, 27 April 2007 (MEST)).
- Instructional design models like writing-to-learn, knowledge-building community model, project-oriented learning (of course, in a later version of this article, connections must be made to educational design theories).
- Microlearning and personal learning environments.
2 What might be different ?
Daniel K. Schneider doesn't really know how e-learning 2.0 should be defined, because it is just a buzzword. But there are some trends that engage emerging technology and different conceptual design patters:
- Teachers adopt web 2.0 services
- The implication of the social software formula tools + services + aggregation)^scale may change the way teachers deal with student productions and their own ones. In particular, they might facilitate
- Both teachers and learners can build "light-weight" learning environments themselves, e.g. integrate social computing services, interesting news feeds, and various office/productivity 2.0 tools with mashup software, e.g. so-called webtops that provide easy integration of web widgets.
- Therefore, one could rethink the educational learning environment as an aggregation of personal learning environments, various knowledge building communities, plus a small orchestration / management / scaffolding component for the teacher.
- This kind of environment clearly favors learning with the computer designs and that make use writing tools that allow to engage students in activities that lead to some kind of products. Some teachers may then implicitly or explicitly be encouraged to use more sophisticated instructional design models like the knowledge-building community model, writing-to-learn, or the community of inquiry model.
- Published mashups in a given area of expertise or personal learning environments put together by workplace learners may centralize access to resources for on the spot learning and other informal learning types.
- Heavy enterprise SOA architectures
- E.g. the JISC/DEST e-framework is based on a web service-oriented approach. Instead of one big application there are lots of services that can be integrated. This would allow organizations and even teacher's and user's to configure much more flexible learning environments than current learning management systems and ultimately open the road to support more diversified instructional design models than the current SCORM-based or even the future IMS Learning Design architectures. This type of architecture never seems to get off the ground [addition in 2015].
(1) Mostly web 2.0 things, e.g. software that is described in articles like:
- webtops ("ajax home pages, webos')
- Currently, I suggest Pageflakes, since their webtops page can be shared (that's important in education I think) - Daniel K. Schneider 22:33, 22 May 2007 (MEST).
- web widgets (applications embedded in webtops or mashups.
- personal learning environments
- virtual office software
- social software, e.g. wikis, blogs etc. in education.
See the list of web 2.0 applications which should provide a centralized list of major software that may be useful in education.
(2) Recent developments in service-oriented architectures (SOA) and web services frameworks
(3) Online learning management systems with a web 2.0 flavor, such as
4 Links and references
- E-learning 2.0 (Blog in German)
- Learning 2.0 This popular site was created to support PLCMC's Learning 2.0 Program; a discovery learning program designed to encourage staff to explore new technologies and reward them for doing23 Things
- School 2.0 School 2.0 is a brainstorming tool designed to help schools, districts and communities develop a common education vision for the future and to explore how that vision can be supported by technology. (includes some "2.0" stuff).
- Classroom 2.0. Social networking site for those interested in Web 2.0 and collaborative technologies in education.
- What is Web2.0? (October 2007) by Kevin Brace.
- Flat classroom. Viki Davis' and Julie Lindsay's global collaborative project that connects classrooms.
- Tutorials and overviews
- Anderson, Paul, What Is Web 2.0? Ideas, Technologies and Implications for Education, JISC Technology and Standards Wath, PDF (One of the best overviews I have seen - Daniel K. Schneider)
- Brian Benzinger (2006), Back to School with the Class of Web 2.0: Part 1, .On 19:51, 14 May 2007 (MEST) this was the best "web 2.0" tools list I found made specifically for education - Daniel K. Schneider.
- 23 Things. This is a sort of WebQuest (23 Things (or small exercises) that you can do on the web to explore and expand your knowledge of the Internet and Web 2.0.). This is also available on 43 things
- Berly Hanly (2006), Back to School with the Class of Web 2.0: Part 1/2/3, Wired.
- D'Souza, Quentin, 100+ Web 2.0 Ideas for Educators: A Guide to RSS and More. Abstract/PDF
- McIntosh, Ewan, Web2.0 in education (Blog entry) for Web2.0inEducationIntroJordanhill.mp4
- OReilly, Tim, Web 2.0 and Education, MP3 (Podcast). A summary is provided by Steve Hargadon. T. O'Reilly made a blog entry.
- Daniel K. Schneider, e-learning_2.0 (ICOOL 2007).
- Blog entries and online articles
- Alexander, Bryan (2006). Web 2.0: A New Wave of Innovation for Teaching and Learning?, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 41, no. 2 (March/April 2006): 32-44. HTML
- Andrews, Robert (2007). Don't Tell Your Parents: Schools Embrace MySpace, Wired, HTML
- Downes, Stephen, E-learning 2.0, eLearn Magazine, HTML As of 17:06, 27 April 2007 (MEST) probably the most quoted piece.
- Good, Robin, (2007). Web 2.0 Takes On Colleges And Universities: The Dawn Of Education 2.0, blog Entry, .
- Karrer, Tony (2006). What is eLearning 2.0?, Blog Entry, HTML.
- Kerres, M. (2006). Potenziale von Web 2.0 nutzen. PDF
- Jadin, T. (in press). Social Software für kollaboratives Lernen. In Batinic, B. , Koller, A. & Sikora, H. (eds.)...
- Jennings David (2005), E-learning 2.0, whatever that is, Blot Entry, HTML
- Mejas, Ulysses (2005). A Nomad's Guide to Learning and Social Software, Abstract/PDF/Word - (HTML)
- Mejas, Ulysses (2006). Teaching Social Software with Social Software: A report, Blog Entry, HTML
- LaMonica, Martin, Futurist: To fix education, think Web 2.0, ZdNet article, HTML. John Seely Brown conference report. (Brown was quite famous in educational technology in the early nineties, a major paradigm shifting period).
- O'Hear, Steve (2006). e-learning 2.0 - how Web technologies areshaping education, Read/Write web, HTML
- O'Hear, Steve (2006). Elgg - social network software for education, Read/Write web, HTML
- MacManus Richard, e-learning 2.0 Infiltrates the Classroom, Read/Write web, HTML.
- Wageneder, Günter and Tanja Jadin (2007). eLearning2.0 - Neue Lehr/Lernkultur mit Social Software?, 13. Treffen des Forum Neue Medien Austria. HTML Reprint.
- Wilson, S. (2005). Future VLE - The Visual Version. HTML
(there is more, should be updated ...)
- Michael Thomas (eds.), Handbook of Research on Web 2.0 and Second Language, Idea Group Inc (IGI), ISBN 1605661902.
- Davis, V. & Lindsay, J. (2007). Flat Classrooms. Learning & Leading with Technology, 35(1), 28-30. Flat_Classroom_LL_August07.pdf
BECTA published in 2008 a number of reports on Web 2.0 in the classroom: