Trialogical learning

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Trialogical Learning refers to “Those forms of learning where learners are collaboratively developing, transforming, or creating shared objects of activity (such as conceptual artefacts, practices, products) in a systematic fashion. Trialogical learning concentrates on the interaction through developing these common, concrete objects (or artefacts) of activity, not just between people ("dialogical approach"), or within one's mind ("monological" approach)” (Trialogical Learning, retrieved 17:16, 13 June 2008 (UTC)).

Trialogic learning can be defined with respect to monologic and dialogic learning:

See also: Cognitive artifact, Cognitive tool, Knowledge-building community model, expansive learning, Transformative pedagogy.


  • See cognitive tools, in particular environments like CSILE.
  • Simple software like wikis (e.g. some articles in our edutech wikis may be the trace of some trialogical learning
  • The KP-LAB Project attemps to build software. The European Community's Knowledge-Practices Laboratory (KP-Lab) project is coordinated by Hakkarainen's research centre at the University of Helsinki. It is a large integrated European project (11.2 million euro, Information Society Technologies program, Technology Enhanced learning call) that involves 15 European countries and 22 organizations (2005-2010). The project will produce a modular, flexible and extensible system consisting of a cluster of inter-operable applications (i.e., shared collaborative spaces, semantic web knowledge services, communication platforms, ubiquitous user agents, inter-institutional access) which organize participants' collaborative activity around shared knowledge artefacts.



  • Ahonen, H., Engeström, Y., & Virkkunen, J. (2000). Knowledge management - the second generation: Creating competencies within and between work communities in the Competence Laboratory. In Y. Malhotra (Ed.), Knowledge management and virtual organizations. Hershey: Idea Group.
  • Andriessen, Jerry; Crina Damsa, Mirjam Pardijs and Patrick Sins (?). Teacher Support of collaborative discussions, Research Centre Learning in Interaction, Utrecht University, KP-lab project. HTML
  • Kotzinos, D., Christophides, V., & Ilomäki, L. (2007). The KP-Lab Framework for Knowledge Creation Practices. ERCIM News, 71. Available online
  • Hakkarainen, K. (2006). Design challenges of Knowledge Practices Laboratory (Working paper of Knowledge-Practice Laboratory) PDF
  • Paavola, S. & Hakkarainen, K. (2005). The Knowledge Creation Metaphor - A Emergent Epistemological Approach to Learning. Science & Education 14(6), 535-55 PDF Draft (Note: This is the best paper I came accross - Daniel K. Schneider 17:16, 13 June 2008 (UTC))
  • Paavola, S. & Hakkarainen, K. (2004, June) "Trialogical" processes of mediation through conceptual artefacts. A paper presented at the Scandinavian Summer Cruise at the Baltic Sea. Stockholm, Sweden. PDF
  • Stetsenko, A. (2005). Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity. Mind, Culture, and Activity 12(1), 70-88.
  • Tzitzikas, Y., Christophides, V., Flouris, G., Kotzinos, D., Markkanen, H., Plexousakis, D., & Spyratos, N. (2007). Emergent Knowledge Artifacts for Supporting Trialogical E-learning. International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 2(3), 16-38
  • Tzitzikas, Y., Christophides, V., Flouris, G., Kotzinos, D., Markkanen, H., Plexousakis, D., & Spyratos, N. (2006). Trialogical E-learning and emergent knowledge artifacts. In E. Tomadaki & P. Scott (Eds.), Innovative Approaches for Learning and Knowledge Sharing, EC-TEL 2006 Workshops Proceedings (pp. 385-399). Greece: University of Patras. Available PDF Reprint