Mixed reality

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Mixed Reality is the merging of real world and virtual worlds to produce a new environment where physical and digital objects can co-exist and interact. A mix of augmented reality and virtual reality. (Wikipedia).

See also: ubiquitous computing since some mixed reality environments are implemented with mobile devices.

Types of systems

Benford identifies 3 major lines of research

  • (Some kinds of) Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs)
  • (Some kinds of) Telepresence systems
  • Collaborative Augmented Environments

See shared spaces for Benford's typology of shared spaces.

We also qualify computer-based manipulatives that include physical parts or physical construction systems that connect to a computer systems as a form of mixed reality systems. A typical example of the latter would be the "Tinker Table" (Zufferey et al.)



  • Benford, S., Greenhalgh, C., Reynard, G., Brown, C., and Koleva, B. (1998). Understanding and constructing shared spaces with mixed-reality boundaries. ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact. 5, 3 (Sep. 1998), 185-223. DOI= Abstract/PDF (Access restricted)
  • Benford, Steve and Chris Greenhalgh and Chris Brown and Boriana Koleva (1998b). Understanding and Constructing Shared Spaces with Mixed Reality Boundaries. TOCHI Paper, March 13 1998 PDF
  • Hughes, C.E. Stapleton, C.B. Hughes, D.E. Smith, E.M. (2005), Mixed reality in education, entertainment, and training, Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, Volume: 25, Issue: 6, page(s): 24- 30. Abstract/PDF (Access restricted)
  • Nova, Nicolas, Socio-cognitive functions of space in collaborative settings: a literature review about Space, Cognition and Collaboration, CRAFT Research Report, EPFL. PDF
  • Zufferey, Guillaume, Jermann, Patrick, Do Lenh, Son and Dillenbourg, Pierre, Using Augmentations as Bridges from Concrete to Abstract Representations, British HCI 2009, Cambridge (UK), September 1-4, 2009. PDF
  • Zufferey, Guillaume, Jermann, Patrick, Lucchi, Aurélien and Dillenbourg, Pierre, TinkerSheets: Using Paper Forms to Control and Visualize Tangible Simulations, Third International Conference on Embedded and Tangible Interaction, Cambridge (UK), Februar 16-18, 2009. PDF
  • Jermann, Patrick, Zufferey, Guillaume and Dillenbourg, Pierre, Tinkering or Sketching: Apprentices’ Use of Tangibles and Drawings to Solve Design Problems. In: Times of Convergence. Technologies Across Learning Contexts, 2008, p. 167-178 Berlin / Heidelberg : Springer, 2008. ISBN 978-3-540-87604-5 PDF
  • Zufferey, Guillaume, Jermann, Patrick and Dillenbourg, Pierre, A Tabletop Learning Environment for Logistics Assistants: Activating Teachers. IASTED-HCI 2008, Innsbruck, Austria, March 17-19, 2008. In: Proceedings of the Third IASTED International Conference Human-Computer Interaction, 2008, p. 37-42 . ACTA Press, 2008. abstract
  • Romero, L. and Correia, N. 2003. HyperReal: a hypermedia model for mixed reality. In Proceedings of the Fourteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia (Nottingham, UK, August 26 - 30, 2003). HYPERTEXT '03. ACM Press, New York, NY, 2-9. Abstract/PDF (Access restricted)