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Developed by Edwin Hutchins, distributed cognition is the theory that knowledge lies not only within the individual but in the individual's social and physical environment.
An executive summary
- Distributed Cognition definition at Learning-Theories.com
- Distributed Cognitions- some theory
- Also on Distributed Cognitions' site: CSILE - some practice in the form of a "Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment" that supports 'knowledge building'.
- Edwin Hutchins' home page includes summaries of his research (and some texts for download), e.g.
- Cole, M. and Engeström, Y. (1991). A Cultural-Historical Approach to Distributed Cognition. G. Salomon, (ed.), Distributed Cognition. Cambrigde University Press, pp. 1-47.
- Hollan, J., Edwin Hutchins, and Kirsch, D. (2000). Distributed Cognition: Toward A New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), Volume 7 , Issue 2, 174 - 196 (There are also draft copies 1999 floating on the Internet).
- Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Hutchins, E., Hollan, J. D., & Norman, D. (1986). Direct manipulation interfaces. In S. Draper & D. Norman (Eds.), User centered system design (pp. 87-124). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.
- Hutchins, E., & Klausen, T. (1996). Distributed cognition in an airline cockpit. In D. Middleton & Y. Engeström(E ds.), Communication and cognition at work (pp. 15-34). Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press. PDF
- Hutchins, E. & Palen, L. (1997). Constructing meaning from space, gesture and speech. In L. B. Resnick, R. Saljo, C. Pontecorvo, & B. Burge, (Eds.), Discourse, tools, and reasoning: Situated cognition and technologically supported environments (pp. 23-40). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag.
- Lehtinen, Erno; Kai Hakkarainen, Lasse Lipponen, Marjaana Rahikainen & Hanni Muukkonen, Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: A Review, CL-Net Project, PDF, retrieved sept. 2008.
- Norman, D. A. (1993) Things that make us smart. Defending human attributes in the age of the machine. New York: Addison-Wesley.
- Pea, R. (1993). Practices of Distributed Intelligence and Designs for Education. In G. Salomon (ed.), Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations, (pp. 47-87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Perkins, D. Salomon, G. Individual and Social Aspects of Learning (accessed July 10, 2006)
- Perkins, D. N. (1993) Person-plus: a distributed view of thinking and learning. In G. Salomon (Ed.) Distributed cognitions. Psychological and educational considerations. (pp. 88-110). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Salomon, G. (1993), Distributed Cognitions, Cambridge University Press.
- Wright, P., Fields, R., & Harrison, M. (2000). Analyzing human-computer interaction as distributed cognition: The resources model. Human Computer Interaction, 51(1), 1-41.