Blended learning

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1 Definition

Note: We refer to more ambitious designs that include for instance ubiquitous learning scenarios as integrated learning.

Other definitions
  • Margareth Driscoll in her research for a book, found that the term blended learning referred to four different concepts:
  1. To combine or mix modes of web-based technology (e.g., live virtual classroom, self-paced instruction, collaborative learning, streaming video, audio, and text) to accomplish an educational goal.
  2. To combine various pedagogical approaches (e.g., constructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism) to produce an optimal learning outcome with or with out instructional technology.
  3. To combine any form of instructional technology (e.g., videotape, CD-ROM, web-based training, film) with face-to-face instructor-led training.
  4. To mix or combine instructional technology with actual job tasks in order to create a harmonious effect of learning and working.
  • “ Blended learning is the combination of multiple approaches to pedagogy or teaching. For example:- self-paced, collaborative or inquiry-based study. Blended learning can be accomplished through the use of 'blended' virtual and physical resources. Examples include combinations of technology-based materials and traditional print materials.” (Wikipedia, retrieved 21:17, 13 September 2006 (MEST))
  • “ The term blended learning is used to describe a solution that combines several different delivery methods, such as collaboration software, Web-based courses, EPSS, and knowledge management practices. Blended learning also is used to describe learning that mixes various event-based activities, including face-to-face classrooms, live e-learning, and self-paced learning.” (P.Valiathan, retrieved 21:17, 13 September 2006 (MEST))
  • The future direction of e-learning has been defined as "blended learning"

2 Links


  • Christian-Carter, Judith (2005) Integrated e-learning. Review of Jochems, Wim et al. Integrated e-learning, British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (4), 698-699. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2005.00547_6.x
  • Blended Learning, Resources for teachers and learners interested in networked and blended learning
  • Blended learning introduction by SiliconSchools and Clayton Christensen Insitute @ the Khan Academy (acessed 4/2014)

3 References

(few so far, this article is just a stub for now}

  • Boyle, Tom, Claire Bradley, Peter Chalk, Ray Jones, Poppy Pickard (2003), Using Blended Learning to Improve Student Success Rates in Learning to Program, Journal of Educational Media, Volume 28, Numbers 2-3 / October 2003 DOI 10.1080/1358165032000153160 (Access restricted).
  • Caroline Gray, Blended Learning: Why Everything Old Is New Again-But Better, Learning Circuits, HTML
  • Derntl, Michael & Renate Motschnig-Pitrik (2004), Patterns for blended, Person-Centered learning: strategy, concepts, experiences, and evaluation, Proceedings of the 2004 ACM symposium on Applied computing, Abstract (PDF (Access restricted)). This article proposed a model that could help systems designers making better environments.
  • Driscoll, M. (2002), Blended learning: Let's get beyond the hype. E-Learning, vol. 3, no. 3, p. 54.
  • Driscoll, Margaret, Blended Learning: Let's Get Beyond the Hype, IMB Global Services, PDF, retrieved 21:17, 13 September 2006 (MEST). (The author writes textbooks about e-learning).
  • Holden, Jolly T. and Westfall, Philip, J-L., (2005), An Instructional Media Selection Guide for Distance Learning, Second Edition, United States Distance Learning Association, PDF (This is an free publication with an entry on blended learning)
  • Kerres, Michael & Claudia De Witt, A Didactical Framework for the Design of Blended Learning Arrangements, Journal of Educational Media, Volume 28, Numbers 2-3 / October 2003, DOI: 10.1080/1358165032000165653 (Access restricted).
  • Martyn, Margie (2003). "The hybrid online model: Good practice.". Educause Quarterly: 18–23. Abstract PDF
  • Tselios, Nikolaos, Stelios Daskalakis, and Maria Papadopoulou. (2011) "Assessing the Acceptance of a Blended Learning University Course." Journal of Educational Technology & Society 14 (2).