Change management

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Change management refers to management methods to plan, control and implement programs of important changes.

Why changement management ?

  • Most educational organizations are very conservative. An educational technologist not only has to worry about pedagogy and technology, but also about organizational issues.

Levels of intervention:

  • Policy making (in particular regarding curricula issues, infrastructure services, etc.)
  • The organization
  • Organizational subunits and their dependencies
  • External facilitators (e.g. teacher development organizations)
  • Individuals (e.g. teachers).


This chapter should contain a short overview on various change mangament related models, frameworks, etc. and point to other pages.

Change management procedure models

Organizational structure

  • Structure is strategy (at least to a certain point). Therefore it is useful to understand how structure is related to function (and the other way round).


  • An important issue is how to empower teachers. In particular, to avoid a conflict between an official "empowerment" discourse and at the same time making life difficult for teachers who actually go for it ....

Instructional design methods

According to Bottori et al. (2007 and Willis (1995), agile design methods like rapid prototyping may be more compatible when change mangement issues are at stake, since typically these methods engage all users in the full process and are meant to adapt design to emerging needs from field testing.


  • Ideagora - An Agora for Ideas and Solutions, a professional network whereby the community can share ideas and create solutions to enhance the global educational process via technology, digital content, social media and web 2.0 tools.


  • Ashley, W. L. & Morrison, J. L. (1996). "Anticipatory Management Tools for the 21st Century.” Futures Research Quarterly, 12 (2), 35-49. HTML
  • Ashley, W. L. & Morrison, J. L. (1997). "Anticipatory Management Tools for Better Decision Making.” The Futurist, 31(5), 47-50. HTML
  • Bates, A.W. (Tony) (2000), Managing Technological Change: Strategies for College and University Leaders, San Franciso: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 0-7879-4681-8. ( Tony Bates' book is one of the most influential texts in today's change management for e-learning literature.)
  • Botturi, L., Cantoni, L., Lepori, B. & Tardini, S. (2007). Fast Prototyping as a Communication Catalyst for E-Learning Design. In M. Bullen & D. Janes (eds), Making the Transition to E-Learning: Strategies and Issues. Hershey, PA: Idea Group, pp. 266-283.
  • Mary Sarah-Jane Gregory & Jason Michael Lodge (2015): Academic workload: the silent barrier to the implementation of technology-enhanced learning strategies in higher education, Distance Education, DOI: 10.1080/01587919.2015.1055056
  • Lewis, Catherine (2015). What Is Improvement Science? Do We Need It in Education? Educational Researcher January/February 2015 44: 54-61, doi:10.3102/0013189X15570388
  • Morrison, J. L. (1992). "Environmental Scanning." In M. A. Whitely, J. D. Porter, and R. H. Fenske (Eds.), A Primer for New Institutional Researchers (pp. 86-99). Tallahassee, Florida: The Association for Institutional Research. HTML
  • Morrison, J. L. (1997). "Transforming Educational Organizations" On the Horizon, 5(1), 2-3. HTML
  • Morrison, J. L. (2005). "Experiencing the Online Revolution." In G. Kearsley (ed.),Online learning: Personal Reflections on the Transformation of Education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. HTML
  • Morrison, J. L., Renfro, W. L., and Boucher, W. (1984). Futures Research and the Strategic Planning Process. (1984). ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Report. HTML
  • Willis, J. (1995). A recursive, reflective instructional design model based on constructivist-interpretist theory. Educational Technology, 35(6), 5-23 PDF Preprint

Further reading

(these are texts that need to be sorted out)

  • Kevin Crowston (????), A Taxonomy Of Organizational Dependencies and Coordination Mechanisms, [1]
  • Malone, Thomas, W. ,Kevin Crowston, Jintae Lee and Brian Pentland, Tools for inventing organizations: Toward a handbook of organizational processes. [2]