Motivation/Online Learning Value and Self-Efficacy Scale

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The Online Learning Value and Self-Efficacy Scale (OLVSES) is a self-assessment instrument.

“Recently, several scholars have suggested that academic self-regulation may be particularly important for students participating in online learning. The purpose of the present study was to develop a quantitative self-report measure of perceived task value and self-efficacy for learning within the context of self-paced, online training, and to investigate reliability and validity evidence for the instrument.” (Aridno and McCoach, 2008:Abstract) [1])

The instrument was developed from an initial 28 survey items. Prior to that a literature was conducted. Definition of learning task value is based on the expectancy-value theory of Eccles and Wigfield (1995, 2002). “These authors define task value in terms of four components: attainment value/importance, intrinsic interest value, extrinsic utility value, and cost. Attainment value (or, more simply, importance) is defined as the importance of doing well on a task, and is linked to the relevance of engaging in a task “for confirming or disconfirming salient aspects of one’s self-schema” (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002, p. 119).” (cited by Artino and McCoach, 2008:282 [1])

Self-efficacy is based on Bandura's therory. Since “the goal of the efficacy scale included in the OLVSES is to assess the extent to which students feel confident they can learn effectively using self-paced online courseware.” Artino and McCoach, 2008:283 [1])and the authors didn't find any scale to do this, they developed their own item set.

The items

Cronbach's alpha for the two subscale was good (.85 and .87), however the authors strived for shorter version:

The following items were retained, based on results from 2 studies:

Task Value (TV)
TV-3 It was personally important for me to perform well in this course.
TV-7 This course provided a great deal of practical information.
TV-8 I was very interested in the content of this course.
TV-10 Completing this course moved me closer to attaining my career goals.
TV-12 It was important for me to learn the material in this course.
TV-13 The knowledge I gained by taking this course can be applied in many different situations.
Self-Efficacy for Learning with Self-Paced, Online Training (SE)
SE-2 Even in the face of technical difficulties, I am certain I can learn the material presented in an online course.
SE-3 I am confident I can learn without the presence of an instructor to assist me.
SE-5 I am confident I can do an outstanding job on the activities in a self-paced, online course.
SE-6 I am certain I can understand the most difficult material presented in a self-paced, online course.
SE-7 Even with distractions, I am confident I can learn material presented online.

Prior versions

Identifying a different item set

  • Artino, A. R., & McCoach, D. B. (2007, April). [2]/AERA_OLTVSES_Artino_APAversion.pdf


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Anthony R. Artino, Jr. and D. Betsy McCoach Development and Initial Validation of the Online Learning Value and Self-Efficacy Scale, Journal of Educational Computing Research April 2008 38: 279-303, doi:10.2190/EC.38.3.c
  2. Artino, A. R., & McCoach, D. B. (2007, April). Development and initial validation of the online learning task value and self-efficacy scale. Paper accepted for presentation at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL,

Other work from the author:

  • Artino, A. R. (2008). Promoting academic motivation and self-regulation: Practical guidelines for online instructors. TechTrends, 52 (3), 37-45