Learning by teaching

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Also referred to as Reciprocal teaching. Building on principles of anchored instruction, project-oriented learning, peer-to-peer learning and other constructivist approaches to learning, learning by teaching learning scenarios use

The benefits of tutoring for the tutor as well as studies in reciprocal teaching, peer-assisted learning, collaborative learning all point to teaching as a means to improve learning. Biswas et al. found that students were motivated by the responsibility of teaching to make sure they had a deeper understanding and conceptual organization of the subject than they would require of themselves as students. (Biswas et al. in Biswas et al)

Artificial learning environments using learning-by-teaching

Using teachable agents in learning-by-teaching scenarios.

Designing systems that are based on a learning-by-teaching model involves designing pedagogical agents that mimic the student-teacher interaction.(Biswas et al.)


Biswas, G., Leelawong, K., Schwartz, D., Vye, N., & The Teachable Agents Group at Vanderbilt. (2005). Learning by teaching: A new agent paradigm for educational software. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 19(3-4), 363-392.

Duran, D., & Topping, K. (2017). Learning by teaching.

Duran, D. & Monereo, C. (2008). The impact of peer tutoring on student self-concept, self-esteem and satisfaction. School Psychology International, 29, 481-499.

Gartner, Alan. Children Teach Children. New York: Harper & Row, 1971, pp. 50-60

Wilson, M. L. (1977). Students Learn Through Cross-Age Teaching. American Secondary Education, 7(3), 35-37.