Educational technology - an introduction

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Daniel K. Schneider used this wiki to prepare an introduction to educational technology. The project was delivered, but the text is for Fernuniversität Hagen (Mediadidactics) students only. Below are just the TOCs (sorry). I may write "real" book some day, but this may require copyright negotiations (for reuse of materials), time and a willing editor .... - July 2008 / 2013 / Feb 2019

The About page lists other objectives.

1 Version 3 (2019, in planning)

Second numbers refer to old chapters.

1.1 Introduction

  1. 1.1 Architecture of the unit and its chapters 11
  2. 1.2 Chapter architecture 12
  3. 1.3 Keywords 13

1.2 What is educational technology?

  • ADD: Something about digital competence (be able to use educational technology and subject-related technology)
  • ADD: Something about the "usefulness", e.g. Spector 2016's criteria Table 1, p 13, p16. "reflects the characteristics that might be considered necessary, desirable, or likely for a smart technology."
  • UPDATE: In the introduction, add foundational pillars other than learning theory and instructional design, e.g. Spector, p. 20: communication, interaction, environment, culture, instruction and learning.

1.3 Conceptual Foundations I: Learning

  1. 3.1 Learning theory 17
    1. 3.1.1 Overview 17
    2. 3.1.2 Behaviorism 18
    3. 3.1.3 Cognitivism and human information processing 19
    4. 3.1.4 Constructivism 20
      1. Add: connectivism
  2. 3.2 Learning domains, levels and style 22
    1. 3.2.1 Learning domains 22
    2. 3.2.2 Learning level 23
      • Add: Spector, p 109 learning types, Johnassen. 2007.
    3. 3.2.3 Learning style 25
      1. Replace by learner preferences
  3. 3.3 Metacognition, reflection and learning strategies 28
    • ADD: Critical thinking (see also 3.6)
  4. 3.4 Human information processing and constraints 30
    1. 3.4.1 Cognitive load theory 30
    2. 3.4.2 Cognitive ergonomics, usability and HCI 31
  5. 3.5 Motivation and Affect 33
      1. Update with some more positive psychology
  6. 3.6 Creativity 37
  7. 3.7 Summary and conclusion 38

1.4 Conceptual foundations II: Pedagogy

  • ADD: Non-pedagogy, e.g. "Job aids", "Digital assistants" (example spell checker, overlay software for procedures).
  1. 4.1 A very short history of instructional design theories 41
  2. 4.2 Pedagogical strategies and methods 41
    1. 4.2.1 Families of pedagogical strategies 42
      • ADD: Clark & Meyer, engagement (p. 16), Inform vs. perform e-learning goals, etc. p 20,22,
    2. 4.2.2 Pedagogical methods 46
    3. 4.2.3 Conclusion 47
  3. 4.3 Instructional design models 47
    • Change to models for educational design (expand a bit)
  4. 4.4 Conclusion 48

1.5 Technologies in education - an overview

  1. 5.1 A short history of educational technology 51
    • Check with Bates technology in a digital age, p 198ff.
  2. 5.2 Overview of educational technologies 52
    • Add a simple Media typology, e.g. Bates, p 223.
    • Add hardware overview (servers, pcs, mobiles, robots, IOT things, passive objects, etc.) + a general component framework
  3. 5.3 Instructional design models in educational technology 54
    • Add BATES, objectivist - connectivist taxonomy ?
  4. ADD A contextual section on digital transformation: leading to personal information/learning and communication spaces.
  5. ADD a section on requirements (c.f. also "gaps")
    • ADD digital and e-learning competence

1.6 E-learning standards and technical foundations

  • Add new variants, e.g. xapi + store,
  • Add some stuff about the infrastructure, stacks
  • maintenace problems, actors.
  1. 5.4 Standards, formats and design languages 56
    1. 5.4.1 Overview of major educational technology standards 56
    2. 5.4.2 Major standardization players 57
    3. 5.4.3 Overview of design languages 58
    4. 5.4.4 UML - the Unified Modeling Language 62
    5. 5.4.5 The XML formalism 65

1.7 ADD: Roles and function and skills

  • (Maybe, describe different roles and functions in design and use of educational technology, e.g. Spector 2016, pages 50-51. or start from definition of learning environment).
  • MOVE TPACK here and digital/other competence, i.e. required skills for various actors.

1.8 Conclusion

  1. 5.5 Conclusion 68
    • Some global model that combines edutech with instructional design, e.g. something ISD-4 "light"

1.9 EduTech 1: Technologies for facts and skills learning

  • Shorten technical aspects and link to a larger "standards" chapter.
  1. 6.1 Computer-based training 72
    • Add that CBT is mostly done with LMS's and became more simple over the years. Link to authoring environments.
  2. 6.2 E-instruction 73
    1. 6.2.1 Sequencing 73
    2. 6.2.2 Learning objects 75
    3. 6.2.3 IMS Content packaging 76
    4. 6.2.4 Beyond simple learning objects 78
    5. 6.2.5 Metadata 78
    6. 6.2.6 Simple menu-based sequencing 79
    7. 6.2.7 SCORM 1.2 Sharable content objects 82
  3. 6.3 Simple sequencing, QTI and SCORM 2004 84
    1. 6.3.1 IMS Simple sequencing 85
    2. 6.3.2 IMS Question & Test Interoperability (QTI) 87
  4. 6.4 ADL Teaching and Learning Architecture and IMS Common Cartridge 88
  5. 6.5 Text-centered alternatives to IMS/SCORM 89
    1. 6.5.1 Electronically delivered textbooks 89
    2. 6.5.2 Pedagogically structured e-books 90
  6. ADD: Video lectures (e.g. ref to Khan academy and MOOCS), vignettes (procedure learning), carton animations.
  7. 6.6 Wikis 93
    • Add "as textbooks"
  8. 6.7 Conclusion and outlook 94

1.10 EduTech 2: Technologies for concept learning and reasoning

  1. 7.1 Hypertext 98
    1. 7.1.1 Hypermedia genres used in education 99
    2. 7.1.2 Hypertext design guidelines 101
    3. 7.1.3 Cognitive flexibility hypertexts 103
    4. 7.1.4 Towards pedagogically designed hypertext 104
  2. 7.2 Multimedia animations 105
    1. 7.2.1 Multimedia authoring environments 105
    2. 7.2.2 Design principles for multimedia animation 106
    3. 7.2.3 The media debate 107
  3. 7.3 The concept of interactivity and interactive multimedia 110
  4. 7.4 Concept maps 112
    1. 7.4.1 Kinds of concept maps and software 112
    2. 7.4.2 Concept maps in education 113
    3. 7.4.3 Mind maps 115
  5. 7.5 Microworlds 117
    1. 7.5.1 Example: AgentSheets 119
    2. 7.5.2 Example: The GenScope and BioLogica hypermodels 121
  6. 7.6 Simulation 125
    1. 7.6.1 Pedagogical effectiveness of simulations 127
    2. 7.6.2 Example: SimQuest 127
  7. 7.7 Game-based learning 128
  8. 7.8 Intelligent tutoring systems 134
    1. 7.8.1 A short introduction to expert system technology 134
    2. 7.8.2 History and discussion 135
  9. 7.9 Learning Design 137
    1. 7.9.1 IMS Learning Design 138
    2. 7.9.2 Overview Table of LD elements 139
    3. 7.9.3 Tools and systems 141
    4. 7.9.4 The LAMS system 143
    5. 7.9.5 The CeLS system 145
  10. 7.10 Conclusion 148

1.11 EduTech 3: Computer-mediated communication and collaborative learning

  1. 8.1 The concept of computer-mediated communication 151
  2. 8.2 General CMC technology 153
    1. 8.2.1 E-mail, mailing lists and forums 153
    2. 8.2.2 Groupware and CSCW 154
    3. 8.2.3 Weblogs 155
    4. 8.2.4 Virtual environments 157
  3. 8.3 Interaction forms in main-stream e-learning 159
    1. 8.3.1 Interactive teleteaching 159
    2. 8.3.2 Podcasts, vodcasts and screen casts 160
    3. 8.3.3 E-tutoring 162
    4. 8.3.4 E-moderation 162
    5. 8.3.5 Knowledge construction environments 163
  4. 8.4 Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning 166
    1. 8.4.1 History and research topics of CSCL 166
    2. 8.4.2 CSCL scripts 169
    3. 8.4.3 The ArgueGraph script example 170
  5. 8.5 Conclusion 171

1.12 EduTech 4: Technologies for learning in action

  • Revise: Keep this at conceptional level and discuss systems later on.
  1. 9.1 Learning in action and project-oriented teaching 173
    1. 9.1.1 Inquiry-based learning 174
    2. 9.1.2 Problem-based learning 174
    3. 9.1.3 Project-based learning 175
    4. 9.1.4 Project-methodology-based learning 176
    5. 9.1.5 Case-based learning 176
    6. 9.1.6 Simulation and gaming 176
    7. 9.1.7 Summary of project-oriented models 177
  2. 9.2 Scaffolding, mentoring, coaching and cognitive tools 177
    1. 9.2.1 The concept of Scaffolding 178
    2. 9.2.2 Coaching and mentoring 178
    3. 9.2.3 Cognitive tools 180
  3. 9.3 Activity portals 183 => MOVE to workflow systems. Shorten CELS etc. to history
  4. 9.4 Business process modelling systems 186
  5. 9.5 Learning e-portfolios 187
  6. 9.6 Conclusion 190

1.13 EduTech 5: Tools for Integration

  • Maybe change the title to "digital learning platforms"
  1. 10.1 Frameworks to look at integrated learning environments 192
  2. 10.2 Integrated and blended learning setups 194
    1. 10.2.1 Blended learning 194
    2. 10.2.2 Computer integrated classrooms 194
  3. 10.3 Learning management systems 196
  4. ADD: Workflow systems (LAMS, FROG) - Centralize their description here.
  5. 10.4 Campus portals 199
  6. 10.5 Organizing materials and information 199
  7. 10.7 Conclusion integration tools 204
  8. ADD: Classroom management software‎‎ (including online "app" environments à la edmodo)

1.14 ADD : Learner productivity tools

  • ADD Organizers
  • ADD Curation tools (links, texts, pictures, etc.) or find some other place.
  • ADD Note keeping tools such as evernote,
  • ADD relate to e-learning comptency (.e.g add "prosumer" model)
  • Move here:
    1. 10.6 Personal learning environments 200
      1. 10.6.1 The Epsilen framework 201
      2. 10.6.2 Example: ELGG 202
      3. 10.6.3 Example: Home made environments with webtops 202

1.15 ADD : Learner motivation and management tools

  1. Recall: Intrinsic vs. extrinsic and in between
  2. Recall: Various strategies that could enhance student motivation. (challenge, control, variety, achievment/self-esteem, feedback.... link with student followup and learner experience.
  3. Valorisation technology, e.g. public videos, learner-produced books, outreach events.
  4. Gamification technology

1.16 EduTech 6: Web 2.0 and social computing

  • Add something about just-in-time open learning, informal non-institutional learning, etc.
  1. 11.1 Social software and social computing 207
  2. 11.2 Social software types and affordances for learning 211
  3. 11.3 Web 2.0 as software platform 216 (MOVE this to beginning, tech framework)
  4. 11.4 Open educational resources and MOOCs 218 (MOVE most of this)
  5. 11.5 Designing scenarios that use web 2.0 technologies 220
  6. 11.6 The future of e-learning 223
    • MOVE to end and update using some reports (e.g. Docebo e-learning trends, gartner, OECD 2019 Trends), E.g. discuss LMS vs. "learning platform", p. 18 Docebo report).

1.17 EduTech 7: Mobile and flexible learning

  1. 12.1 E-books for mobile devices 226
  2. 12.2 Location in mobile learning 227
  3. 12.3 Apps 228
  4. 12.4 The future of mobile learning 231

1.18 EduTech 8: Analytics and assessment tools

  • Rename to student followup ??
  • Link to new e-learning standards XAPI + LRS etc.
  1. 13.1 Learning analytics 233
  2. 13.2 Use of general purpose web analytics tools 236
  3. 13.3 Learning process analytics 239
  4. 13.4 Assessment tools 241
  5. 13.5 Towards more informed teaching and learning? 245

1.19 Research and design methodology

  • Add some introduction about the relation of research purpose and approache (e.g. Clark & Meyer, p 52 ff)
  • the concept of evidence-base (useful to design components) based on interpretation of Effect size and similar standardized measures.
  • Add interest and limitations of meta research.
  1. 14.1 Design-based research 248
  2. 14.2 Instructional design methods 250
  3. 14.3 User-centered design methodology 253
  4. 14.4 Development methodology for researchers 254
  5. 14.5 Evaluation methodology 255
    • ADD SECTIONS model (Bates, 262).
  6. 14.6 Innovation and change management 256
    1. 14.6.1 General change management issues 257
    2. 14.6.2 Expansive learning 258
    3. 14.6.3 Teacher development models with respect to ICT usage 259
    4. ADD Teacher incentives and enabling technology (e.g. rewards).
  7. 14.7 The relationship between research and practice 260
  8. ADD Cost and sustainability of learning platforms, learning objects, course materials.

1.20 Conclusion

  1. 15.1 Formats and standards 264
  2. 15.2 Authoring tools, microworlds and simulation environments 265
  3. 15.3 Delivery systems and on-line productivity tools 265
  4. 15.4 Learning types, designs and technologies overview 267
  5. 15.5 Further reading 269
  6. 15.6 On-line resources 271

1.21 Glossary

1.22 Index

1.23 Bibliography

2 Version 1 (2008)

1 Introduction 9

1.1 Architecture of the unit and its chapters 9
1.2 Chapter architecture 10
1.3 Keywords 11

2 What is educational technology? 12

3 Conceptual Foundations I: Learning 15

3.1 Learning theory 15
3.2 Learning domains, levels and style 20
3.3 Metacognition, reflection and learning strategies 27
3.4 Human information processTable of Contentsing and constraints 28
3.5 Motivation and Affect 31
3.6 Creativity 35
3.7 Summary and conclusion 37

4 Conceptual foundations II: Pedagogy 39

4.1 A very short history of instructional design theories 40
4.2 Pedagogical strategies and methods 40
4.3 Instructional design models 46
4.4 Conclusion 47

5 Technologies in education - an overview 49

5.1 A short history of educational technology 50
5.2 Overview of educational technologies 51
5.3 Instructional design models in educational technology 53
5.4 Standards, formats and design languages 55
5.5 Conclusion 67

6 EduTech 1: Technologies for facts and skills learning 69

6.1 Computer-based training 71
6.2 E-instruction 72
6.3 Simple sequencing and QTI 85
6.4 Text-centered alternatives to IMS/SCORM 87
6.5 Wikis 91
6.6 Conclusion and outlook 93

7 EduTech 2: Technologies for concept learning and reasoning 95

7.1 Hypertext 97
7.2 Multimedia animations 104
7.3 The concept of interactivity and interactive multimedia 110
7.4 Concept maps 112
7.5 Microworlds 117
7.6 Simulation 125
7.7 Intelligent tutoring systems 129
7.8 Learning Design 133
7.9 Conclusion 141

8 EduTech 3: Computer-mediated communication and collaborative learning 142

8.1 The concept of computer-mediated communication 143
8.2 General CMC technology 145
8.3 Interaction forms in main-stream e-learning 152
8.4 Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning 158
8.5 Conclusion 163

9 EduTech 4: Technologies for learning in action 165

9.1 Learning in action and project-oriented teaching 166
9.2 Scaffolding, mentoring, coaching and cognitive tools 171
9.3 Activity portals 177
9.4 Social software and web 2.0 services 183
9.5 Learning e-portfolios 187
9.6 Conclusion 190

10 EduTech 5: Tools for Integration 191

10.1 Frameworks to look at integrated learning environments 192
10.2 Integrated and blended learning setups 194
10.3 Learning management systems 197
10.4 Campus portals 200
10.5 Organizing materials and information 200
10.6 Personal learning environments 204
10.7 Conclusion integration tools 208

11 Research and design methodology 210

11.1 Design-based research 211
11.2 Instructional design methods 214
11.3 User-centered design methodology 217
11.4 Development methodology for researchers 218
11.5 Evaluation methodology 219
11.6 Innovation and change management 220
11.7 The relationship between research and practice 224

12 Conclusion 227

12.1 Formats and standards 228
12.2 Authoring tools, microworlds and simulation environments 229
12.3 Delivery systems and on-line productivity tools 229
12.4 Learning types, designs and technologies overview 231
12.5 Further reading 232
12.6 On-line resources 234

13 Glossary 235

14 Index 243

15 Bibliography 249