In education, a grade (or mark) is a teacher's standardized evaluation of a student's work.
In some countries, evaluations can be expressed quantifiably, and calculated into a numeric grade point average (GPA). A cumulative grade point average (CGPA) is the mean GPA from all semesters, whereas GPA may only refer to a single semester (Wikipedia)
2 Grading systems
See Grade (education) (Wikipedia). A good overview of various national grading scales.
3 Evaluation grids
This topic is almost totally missing from this wiki. But we should have some more information, in particular models to evaluate technology-supported open-ended work ...
See for the moment Wikipedia's Educational assessment and evaluation category (more than 100 articles).
In this wiki:
4 Grade inflation
Grade inflation is an issue in U.S. education and in GCSEs and A levels in England and Wales. The term refers to the phenomenon of increasing academic grades over time. (Wikipedia, retrieved 18:13, 1 November 2007 (MET).)
It's also an issue here to some extent ...
- Grade (education)(Wikipedia).
6.2 Grade inflation
- Gradeinflation.com A 2002 piece written by an ex-university professor
- Grade inflation (Wikipedia)
- Grade Inflation: It's Time to Face the Facts, By HARVEY C. MANSFIELD
- Don't Worry About Grade Inflation Why it doesn't matter that professors give out so many A's by Jordan Ellenberg.
- Grade Inflation, The Economist, october 25 2007.
- On grade inflation
- De Witte, Kristof; Geys, Benny & Solondz, Catharina (2014). Public expenditures, educational outcomes and grade inflation: Theory and evidence from a policy intervention in the Netherlands. Economics of Education Review, June 2014, Volume 40, issue 1 (pp. 152-166).
- Jewell, R. Todd, & McPherson, Michael A. (2012). Instructor‐Specific Grade Inflation: Incentives, Gender, and Ethnicity. Social Science Quarterly, March 2012, Volume 93, issue 1 (pp. 95-109).
- Jewell, R. Todd; McPherson, Michael A. & Tieslau, Margie A. (2013). Whose fault is it? Assigning blame for grade inflation in higher education. Applied Economics, December 2013, Volume 45, issue 9 (pp. 1185-1200).
- Kelly, Thomas F. (2009). Backtalk: Grade Inflation - Sense and Nonsense. The Phi Delta Kappan, May 2009, Volume 90 issue 9 (p. 696)
- Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric & Muller, Chandra (2013). Is the sky falling? Grade inflation and the signaling power of grades. Educational Researcher, June/July 2013, Volume 42, issue 5 (pp. 259-265).