- To empower is to equip or supply someone with an ability; to enable.
- Empowerment is strongly correlated with task motivation. Therefore one can claim that in order to engage teachers in pedagogical reform one must give them some control over their own work and influence in the reform process. It also means that "fake empowerment" strategies will lead to bad oucomes (see the Baruch empowerment model.)
See also: teacher empowerment.
2 General models of empowerment
According to Baruch (1998), Thomas and Velthouse (1990) define empowerment by the existence of four components:
According to Dee et al (2003): Empowerment appears to reinforce a range of requisites for effective employee functioning, including:
- According to Dee et al. (2003), empowerment can be defined with Spreitzer's four dimensions:
- Ashforth, B. (1989), "The organizationally induced helplessness syndrome: a preliminary model", Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 43 pp.207-42.
- Baruch, Yehuda (1998). Career Development International, Volume 3, Number 2, pp. 82-87. HTML retrieved 15:19, 3 June 2006 (MEST).
- Conger, J.A., Kanungo, R.N. (1988), "The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 13 No.3, pp.471-82.
- Deci, E., Connell, J., Ryan, R. (1989), "Self-determination in a work organization", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 74 pp.580-90.
- Dee, Jay R., Alan B. Henkin, Lee Duemer (2003). Structural antecedents and psychological correlates of teacher empowerment", Journal of Educational Administration, Volume 41 Number 3 pp. 257-277, ISSN 0957-8234
- Malone, T.W. (1997), "Is empowerment just a fad? Control, decision making and IT", Sloan Management Review, pp.23-35.
- Mondros, J. B., & Wilson, S. M. (1994). Organizing for power and empowerment. New York,NY: Columbia University Press.
- Spreitzer, G. (1992), "When organizations dare: the dynamics of organizational empowerment in the workplace" .
- Spreitzer, G. (1995), "Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimensions, measurement and validation", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38 No.5, pp.1442-65.
- Thomas, K.W., Velthouse, B.A. (1990), "Cognitive elements of empowerment: an 'interpretative' model of intrinsic task motivation", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 15 pp.666-81.