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Presence is an important concept in immersive and non-immersive virtual environments.

According to Whelan 82008) [1] “Witmer and Singer’s (1998) definition of what constitutes presence contains four facets: (1) control over and behavioral impact on the virtual environment by the individual; (2) the breadth and richness of sensory stimuli in the virtual environment; (3) the experience of immersion in the virtual environment and the concurrent isolation to outside distractions; and, (4) the consistency between the virtual environment and the real world, or more simply, the social “realism” of the virtual environment.”



  1. Wheelan, T. J. (2008). Social Presence in Multi-User Virtual Environments: A Review and Measurement Framework for Organizational Research. North Carolina State University. Retrieved July 2 2019 from