Knirk and Gustafson design model

The educational technology and digital learning wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The printable version is no longer supported and may have rendering errors. Please update your browser bookmarks and please use the default browser print function instead.



The Knirk and Gustafons design method and model is prescriptive stage model for instructional designers.


The Model

Knirk and Gustafson (1986) designed three stage process which includes problem determination, design and development.

  1. The problem determination stage includes identification of the problem, definition of the pedagogical goals and identification of what the learners can do (knowledge, skills, learning styles, affect, etc.)
  2. The design stage includes developing objectives and specifying strategies.
  3. The development stage includes development of materials, testing and revision.