Dukes simulation and gaming model for sociology teaching

The educational technology and digital learning wiki
Revision as of 13:00, 22 June 2006 by Daniel K. Schneider (talk | contribs) (using an external editor)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)
Jump to navigation Jump to search


The 'Dukes simulation and gaming model for sociology teaching is an instructional design model in the field of simulation and gaming.

DSchneider believes that it refers to non-computerized role-playing games.

It has been published as such on the old Simluation and gaming Journal web site in 1997. Since Prof. Duke is now retired and difficult to contact and this web site may disappear any day we took the liberty to reproduce the entire model here with some minor changes.

The model: Suggestions For Running Simulations/Games In The Classroom

(A synthesis of ideas from Garry Shirts, Richard D. Duke, Cathy S. Greenblat)


  1. Read the director's manual.
  2. Do a trial run (use friends, relatives, etc.).
  3. In minimum terms, being prepared means:
    • Know what physical arrangements are needed;
    • Know the sequence of events;
    • Know what to say to get things started;
    • Know the artifacts and how and when to use them;
    • Know how you want to debrief the activity (especially questions you want to ask).


Do not give too many directions at the start:

  1. Explain the main objective of the exercise.
  2. Explain enough of the game to get them started.
  3. Answer more complicated questions as they arise.
  4. Walk through the first round if it cannot be explained simply.
  5. Use handouts or wall charts if the rules and sequences are lengthy.


  1. Use assistants for routine operations
  2. Discourage nonparticipant observers. Use those who do not want to play as assistants.
  3. Assistants can pass out routine items, so your time is free to monitor the game, answer questions, and keep things moving.

Assigning participants to groups/roles:

  1. Your strategy should appear to be random rather than selective.
  2. Assignment of two or more persons to one role will increase interaction, and it will cushion against the effects of players leaving early or nonperformance.

Simulation speed and stop

  1. Keep the simulation moving
    • It is better to go too fast than too slow.
    • All decisions called for in the game should be somewhat rushed.
  2. The game should be stopped at the peak of interest. Do not let it start to drag.

The game rules are like natural laws

  1. They should not be broken by the participants.
  2. Do not allow cheating.
  3. However, "person laws" (or those which emerge between participants) can be violated if the parties feel so inclined.

The debriefing

Should proceed from simple descriptive questions about what happened (giving participants a chance to vent their feelings) to questions dealing with explanation, analysis, and finally to generalizations about the referent system that the game mirrors.

  1. What happened?
  2. Why does it happen in most plays of the game?
  3. How does what happened compare with real world?
  4. What would happen if . . .?


Simulation and Gaming and the Teaching of Sociology 6th edition, 1997. Compiled by Richard L. Dukes Colorado University, Colorado Springs.