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== Module 4 - Richard's page ==
 
== Module 4 - Richard's page ==
== Introduction ==
+
== Learning Outcomes ==
 
    
 
    
This 12 week's training course teaches the fundamentals of digital marketing, it covers the basic elements
+
# Understand Open learning education; history, benefits and limitations
that will equip learners with the skills required to get started on digital marketing ventures. There are
+
# Explore the different types of OER in Kenyan Context
quizzes, assignments and practical activities learners will need to complete to successfully graduate from
+
# Creation of OER and software for OER creation
the program.
 
[[File:DLE Ombina.png|thumb]]<br>
 
  
== Training Delivery ==
+
Time: 72 Hours Description:
# 10-12 weeks
 
# 4 hours daily
 
# 5 days a week
 
# Delivery method - both online and classroom
 
# LMS - Google Classroom/Website
 
  
== Training requirements ==
+
Steps to be undertaken in this project
# Computers
 
# Stable internet
 
# Projector or big screen (optional)
 
# Whiteboard and marker pens (optional)
 
# Webcams (optional)
 
# Headphones
 
# Gmail email addresses (participants)
 
  
== Course Goals ==
+
# Introducing the project: defining objectives, outlining target and activities, explaining resources available for further reading
At the end of this course learners should be able to identify the importance of the digital marketing for
+
# Review and reflect on the different types of OER
marketing success, to manage customer relationships across all digital channels and build better customer
+
# Create and share own OER
relationships, to create a digital marketing plan, and defining a target group, then identifying digital
+
 
channels, their advantages, and limitations, to perceiving ways of their integration taking into consideration
+
== Introduction to OER ==  
the available budget.
+
Open Educational Learning (OEL) is described as the whole set of practices around the creation, use, and management of OER, according to the OPAL (2010) report. This includes any supporting tools, as well as the resources themselves and any enabling frameworks. OEP includes practically all stakeholders involved in supporting and managing learning provision in educational systems, and it encompasses the complete spectrum of policy, research, and practice around OER. The OEP addresses the whole OER governance community, including policymakers, organizational managers/administrators, educational professionals, and learners.
== Modules ==
+
 
 +
Open Educational Practices (OEP) are practices that support the (re)use and production of OER through institutional policies, promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers of their lifelong learning paths, according to Camilleri, Ehlers, and Pawlowski (2014).
 +
 
 +
Characteristics of OER
 +
 
 +
They go beyond access into open learning architectures and seek ways to use OER for transforming learning
 +
They focus on learning as a construction of knowledge assets, which they share with others and receive feedback and reviews
 +
They follow the notion of improving quality through external validation because of the importance of sharing research findings.
 +
 
 +
=== Background ===
 +
 
 +
Kenya's dedication to ICT integration and application in education. Working with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology as well as other educational organizations such as the Teacher Service Commission and the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development on the design of Open Educational Resources and ICT integration in education, UNESCO and COL, in particular, have played and continue to play an important role. Kenya is a signatory to the OER Paris Declaration, which guides the work of both UNESCO and COL. The first Kenyan Government policy to address OEL in higher education was the Act of Parliament of 1966, which established the Board of Adult Education. OEL has been promoted as an alternate method of education by a number of commissions and investigations since independence. Session Paper No. 1 of 2005 (Republic of Kenya, 2005) advocates the formation of an open university and the use of OEL in human resource development at all levels, according to the most recent government effort. Kenya has seen a fast increase of higher education institutions in recent decades. This might be linked to ;
 +
 
 +
An increase in demand for higher education, which is partly due to improved knowledge of the educational benefits (Khan, 2001). As a result of the rising demand, OEL has quickly become an acknowledged and important part of mainstream educational platforms in both developed and developing countries, with a focus on the latter (UNESCO, 2002).
 +
The popularity of distant learning has grown as a result of several causes. One such aspect is family obligations, particularly among women. In terms of time and resources, women, particularly in Kenya, face a variety of challenges that males do not. However, the introduction of OEL has expanded women's options and made education and training more accessible to them because they may now study from the comfort of their own homes. It enables individuals to learn at their own pace and seek out and acquire skills for personal development while also taking care of their families (Brunner, 1991).
 +
Technological, cultural, and social revolutions have impacted us, profoundly altering how we live, work, and study (Wheeler, 2000; Edwards, 1997). Even the most solid of our social institutions, such as education, have been overwhelmed by accelerating change, and the rate of change will undoubtedly rise in the years ahead.
 +
African countries continue to face internal conflicts as well as regional interstate battles caused by religious, ethnic, economic, or political disagreements. The number of migrants and persons who are homeless or displaced has risen dramatically, demanding more flexible schooling options. The adaptability of open, distant, and e-learning approaches has aided their ascension as the major mode of lifelong learning.
 +
 
 +
=== Advantages ===
 
   
 
   
===== Digital marketing strategy =====
+
# '''Convenience''': E-learning materials are stored on the learner's computer and accessed at any time. They do not necessitate the presence of the learner in a classroom. The system also allows students to download and save learning materials for later use.
 +
# Cost Effectiveness: students can choose from a large range of courses and make the selection depending on their needs.
 +
# Up-to-date learning materials: study materials in OEL systems are updated more frequently than in the classroom-based education systems. Once the study materials are placed in the system, they can be updated without changing the whole materials and the materials can be available and reused for longer times.
 +
 +
# '''Flexibility''': OEL is a flexible way of learning for many students. Most of the study materials are stored for the students to access whenever they want. Students can also choose between an instructor-led and a self-learning system. It is also possible for students to skip over the study materials they already know and choose the ones they want to learn.
 +
 +
# '''Global learning''' : E-learning technologies contribute to the creation of a global learning society by allowing anybody to access study resources regardless of their physical location. Learners may now contribute to study materials using the mechanisms that are now accessible, which helps to keep the contents up to date.
 +
 +
# '''Scalability''': The number of students in virtual classrooms or e-learning systems can be extremely small or very large without affecting the overall cost.
 +
 +
# '''Better retention''': E-video learning's and audio assets make the learning experience more enjoyable. They assist students in remembering information for a long time and can also be accessed at any time, allowing for greater retention through repetition.
 +
 
 +
=== Disadvantages ===
 
   
 
   
{| class="wikitable"
+
# '''Regulations on Intellectual Property Rights and Copyright''': Intellectual property rights (IPR) and copyright restrictions, which require the consent of IPR owners for their works to be publicly available, are one of the problems related with OER integration in Kenya.
|+ Digital marketing strategy
+
# '''Low motivation''': Because there is no one to supervise them, students with low motivation are more likely to fail to meet their goals. Students are in charge of the course's routine and organization, which might lead to lethargy and low motivation at times and thus may drop out of the course early due to a lack of a set schedule and deadlines.
|-
+
# '''Level of Knowledge and Skills''': According to studies by Ochukut (2013), Gakindi (2010), and Ngimwa & Wilson, the level of knowledge and skills in Kenya related OER is still poor (2012). Some people were also using OER resources without realizing it. Furthermore, people's readiness to participate in and consume OER content was shown to be hampered by a lack of computer literacy. Some senior academics, for example, who are computer illiterate, may be hesitant to participate in technology-related projects.
! Day!! Lesson
+
# '''Existing OEP Policies and Strategies''': OEP policies and strategies define the rules and regulations that govern OEP implementation across an organization. OEP strategies and policies are weak or not fully developed at both the national and institutional levels, according to certain studies on OER in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ochukut, 2013; Gakindi, 2010; Ngimwa and Wilson, 2012). For example, according to a case study of Africa Nazarene University, the university has a policy and procedure structure, but it is not yet fully matched to OER and ODeL. (Ooko & Mays, 2015).
!At the end of this lesson learners should be able to !! Duration (hours)
+
# '''Compatibility issues''': Because there are so many different learning systems, study materials created with one system may not be compatible with another. Mobile devices, such as iPads, for example, prevent flash videos from being played in their browsers. There are some limits to the amount of websites that may be viewed, therefore access to websites may not be free everywhere.
|-
+
# '''Unreliable Content''': The content available on the Internet is not necessarily dependable. There are publishers that intentionally mislead readers and provide incorrect information. As a result, readers must exercise caution while looking for information and ensure that the content is reliable before studying it.
| 1 || What is digital marketing and it’s benefits ||
+
# '''Social Isolation''': Lack of a genuine/real classroom or classmates may cause social isolation for certain students . The lack of real people surrounding them while learning, students may feel socially isolated at times.S
* Describe what is digital marketing
+
# '''OER Funding''': While e-learning is typically a less expensive alternative in the long term, it may be prohibitively expensive for some institutions at initially. For new or small institutions, purchasing new equipment such as computers, projectors, or software all at once may be difficult. In addition, compared to traditional approaches, the expense of generating training materials is significant. Financial sustainability is necessary for successful OER implementation in Kenya because relying on money is a short-term solution and a weak motivation for participating in OER. According to Ochukut (2013), some colleges in Kenya, such as UON, may not have additional resources to allocate to OER, which may hinder OER implementation.
* Outline the benefits of digital marketing
+
# '''Students with disabilities'''. Companies frequently target broad user groups when developing new learning products or study settings. They may not always consider disabled students, such as those who are Visually Impaired, because the development costs may be prohibitive.
|| 2
+
# '''Not all effective''': Because e-learning does not allow for two-way communication, face-to-face study materials may be more successful in some circumstances.
|-
 
| 2 || How is digital marketing done || Describe a step by step process how digital marketing is done || 4
 
|-
 
| 3 || Types of digital marketing channels || Outline types of digital marketing models || 4
 
|-
 
| 4 ||
 
Digital marketing best practices
 
  
|| Explain digital marketing best practices|| 2
+
== OER platforms in Kenya ==
|-
+
Kenya has various International and Regional OERs ; Teacher education, agriculture, secondary education, and non-formal education. Among them ; the OER Africa initiative, the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA )program, and the African Virtual University (AVU) teacher education OER modules and repository
| 5 || What is traditional marketing
+
 
 
+
=== Kenyata University ===
* Advantages and disadvantage of traditional marketing
+
The Digital School of Virtual and Open Learning ([https://www.ku.ac.ke/dsvol/ DSVOL]), originally the Institute of Open, Distance, and e-Learning, was founded in 2014 with the goal of providing education instruction at any time and anywhere. The school provides programs at all levels, including diploma, undergraduate, and postgraduate. The school has built regional centers to give onsite lessons in different places around the country, in addition to providing online help to its students. The DSVOL also gives eLearners with tablets that are pre-loaded with content from the units for which they have registered. Under the Creative Commons License, the school provides a library internet repository containing open access full-text books. Books, book reviews, book chapters, conference workshop and seminar papers, undergraduate projects, research papers, policies and reports, newsletters, service delivery charters, graduation booklets, public lectures and speeches, Masters and PhD theses and dissertations can all be found in the repository.
* Advantages and disadvantage of digital marketing
 
* Types of channels/strategies for digital and traditional marketing
 
|| Describe what is traditional marketing
 
* Outline the benefits of traditional marketing
 
* Describe the difference between traditional marketing and digital marketing
 
* Outline the advantages and disadvantage of digital marketing
 
* Outline types of channels/strategies for digital and traditional marketing
 
|| 4
 
|}
 
===== Creating an Online presence =====
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Creating online presence
 
|-
 
! Day!! Lesson
 
!At the end of this lesson learners should be able to !! Duration (hours)
 
|-
 
| 6 || What is an online presence
 
* Benefits of online presence
 
* Types of digital platforms to establish an online presence
 
* How to create your online presence
 
|| Describe what is an online presence
 
* Explain the benefits of online presence
 
* Outline various  types of digital platforms to establish an online presence
 
* Describe a step by step process on how to create your online presence
 
* Outline types of digital marketing analytics metrics
 
* Outline how to improve online presence
 
* Describe online presence ethics
 
|| 4
 
|-
 
| 7 || How to improve online presence and online presence ethics
 
  
||
+
=== TESSA ===
* Create a website from Wix
+
[https://www.tessafrica.net/ TESAA] is a network of teachers and teacher educators collaborating with the Open University in the United Kingdom to increase the quality of classroom practice and access to teacher education resources throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. It accomplishes this by providing a variety of Open Educational Resources (OER) to promote teacher education in schools. It's a global collaboration that includes the BBC World Service Trust, the Commonwealth of Learning, and the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE), but it focuses on teacher education requirements in nine African countries (Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) The program began with thirteen African universities as founding members, with ambitions to expand to additional nations and institutions in the future. The TESSA OER consists of 75 study modules in Science, Literacy, Mathematics, Social Studies and the Arts, and Life skills (Wolfenden et al. 2010), and is available in four languages. The State of Open Educational Resources in Kenya Right Now (Arabic, English, French and Kiswahili) The uniqueness of the TESSA OER program is in that it is targets teachers and places the end user, the teacher educator, at the core of the initiative. The great majority of OER were developed in collaboration by teacher educators from all around Africa (over 100 authors have been involved). Both the contents and the portal were developed after considerable consultation with possible user groups, and they were based on local knowledge, materials, and approaches.
* Create social media accounts and profiles
 
|| 4
 
|-
 
| 8||
 
* What is the meaning of outbound and inbound marketing
 
* Benefits of both outbound and inbound marketing
 
||
 
* Describe what is outbound marketing and is it distict from inbound marketing
 
* Outline the benefits of outbound and inbound marketing
 
  
|| 4
+
=== Egerton University ===
|}
+
Egerton College of Open and Remote Learning ([https://www.egerton.ac.ke/school-of-distance-learning-sodl CODL]) was formed in 2002 with the mission of promoting and facilitating the spread of open and distance education. CODL has been able to provide a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate programs through local and international partnerships, including the Bachelor of Commerce, Bachelor of Arts, M.A in Linguistics, M.A in Economics, and Master of Community Development. The CODL has partnered with Kenya's Department of Defense to provide training to military personnel furthering their education as well as formed worldwide partnerships with prominent distance learning universities in Africa and the United Kingdom, including the University of South Africa (UNISA), the Open University of Tanzania, Africa Virtual University, and the Open University of the United Kingdom.
===== Learning Resources and Tests =====
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Caption text
 
|-
 
! Learning Resource !! Resource Link !! Test Link
 
|-
 
| Digital Marketing ||  https://docs.google.com/document/d/1EvmDNSAporoVRk-DFBHERQTALhyyzJiF/edit?usp=share_link&ouid=116129924220251300570&rtpof=true&sd=true || https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScxyj3J2JFYPmOZWwpZG0o72DtlZ1jqOS7SvbXnHALcq8nF2A/viewform
 
|-
 
 
   
 
   
|}
+
=== Boarderles Higher Education for Refugees ===
 +
[https://www.bher.org/ BHER] is a collaboration of Kenyan and Canadian universities (MoI University, Kenyatta University, University of British Columbia, and York University) with the mission of providing education and training to refugees and certifying the many untrained volunteer teachers. The BHER initiative is working with refugees in Dadaab, Kenya, one of the world's largest refugee camps. BHER aims to increase access to educational possibilities in order to bridge the gap between refugees and the rest of the world.
  
+
=== Africa Nazarine University ===
[[File:Capture.png|thumb]]
+
The ANU Institute of Open and Distance Learning (IODL) was founded in 2011 to help mature and self-motivated learners, often those already in the workforce, pursue their studies without the limitations of full-time attendance at campus-based lectures (Ooko & Mays, 2015).The ANU IODL implements CAMS (an academic management system) and Moodle (a learning management system customized for ANU as "ENAZ") to allow distant learners to register for tutorials, discussions, and continuous assessment procedures online. Most students are opting for non-traditional learning options such as evening programs, school-based learning, and online learning.
 +
 
 +
== Deciding to implement OER ==
 +
ASome guiding questions include:
 +
 
 +
# What do I want my students to take away from this experience?
 +
# How will I persuade students that the concepts I'm presenting are worthwhile?
 +
# How will I test my students' grasp of fundamental concepts?
 +
# Is my target demographic geographically or ethnically specific?
 +
# Are there any cultural differences to consider before developing OER?
 +
 
 +
=== OER TECH Considerations ===
 +
=== HighTech ===
 +
There are several platforms that offer professional tools for content production, some of which are quite simple to use.
 +
 
 +
Press Books (where this material is produced) is a publishing program that makes it simple to create interactive e-books and other text-based content.
 +
Git Book: This open source application, developed by GitHub, allows one to build a book that will be posted on the GitHub platform. One may write your book in Markdown, include photographs, and incorporate web material.
 +
Book down is an open-source R tool that makes it easier to write books and long-form articles/reports using R Markdown.
 +
Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web tool that lets one create and share documents with live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative prose.
 +
=== LowTech ===
 +
According to Affordable Learning Georgia. (2015) one simple way to create educational resources is by using familiar word processing tools such as Microsoft Word, Google Docs, or Libre Office. These softwares includes most of the features needed for standard content, and the files can be easily exported as a PDF or printed.
 +
 
 +
LibreOffice Draw: Draw allows you to create everything from a fast sketch to a big plan, as well as communicate with graphics and diagrams. Draw is a fantastic tool for creating technical drawings and other visual representations.
 +
Inkscape: An open source application for creating and editing PDFs, as well as vector drawing and graphics. If your document contains a lot of images, this is a superior option for PDF editing.
 +
=== MediumTech ===
 +
A website or hosted resource is another typical approach to produce or edit educational resources. This could be done through the use of a blog, a static website, or a wiki. WordPress can be an excellent option for these medium-tech tasks.
 +
 
 +
Gnu Image Manipulation Program (GIMP): GIMP is an open source, cross-platform image editor that is available for GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows, and other operating systems.
 +
OER Commons Open Author: Open Author assists you in creating Open Educational Resources, lesson plans, and courses that you may freely distribute on the OER Commons platform.
 +
Pressbooks is a straightforward book formatting program. Some universities, such as Iowa State University, offer author assistance for publishing in Pressbooks via our Digital Press.
  
== Evaluation Rubric ==
+
== References ==
{| class="wikitable"
+
# Ehlers, U. D. (2011). Extending the territory: From open educational resources to open educational practices. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 15 (2), [1–10].
|+ Caption text
+
# Ernsting, A. (2016). DLR group launches design work at Kenyatta University. Retrieved from: http://www.dlrgroup.com/about/news/kenyatta-university-design-launch/
|-
+
# Egerton University (2010). Egerton university institutional repository. Retrieved from: http://irlibrary. egerton.ac.ke/jspui/
! Criteria !! Excellent = 25% !! Very Good = 20% !! Satisfactory = 15% !! Not Met = 5%
+
# ICT Authority, Kenya (2014). The Kenya national ICT masterplan: Towards a digital Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: https://www.kenet.or.ke/sites/default/files/Final%20ICT%20 Masterplan%20Apr%202014.pdf.
|-
+
# Juma, M. N. (2001). The African Virtual University: The case of Kenyatta University, Kenya. Commonwealth case studies in education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ ED472311.pdf.
| '''Objectives, goals & situational analysis- scene setting(25 points)''' || Clear and relevant objectives and goals using SMART goal setting or other business oriented method. Scene setting clearly establishes the business need for the product, service, or communications campaign.  || Most objectives and goals are outlined and scene setting establishesthe business need for the product, service, or communications campaign. Some gaps or lack of clarity in scene setting. || Lack of clarity in outlining objectives andgoals and the business case for the product, service, or communications campaign not well developed, although some justification provided in scene setting || Little attempt to develop objectives and goals; poor or noattempt to develop the business case for the product, service, or communications campaign.
+
# Vision 2030 Republic of Kenya (2007). Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: http://theredddesk.org/ sites/default/files/vision_2030_brochure__july_2007.pdf.
|-
+
# Kenyatta University (2014). Digital school of virtual and open learning (DSVOL). Retrieved online: http://ku.ac.ke/dsvol/index.php/about-us.html.
| '''Target audience development (25 points)'''|| Sophisticated audience development using personas or other digital marketing tool; clear identification of audience clusters and convincing argument establishing the audience need for the product, service, or campaign || Very good audience development and good use of relevant digital marketing tools. Personas used to identify audience members with some accompanying justification as to why the audience has a need for the product, service, or campaign || Satisfactory audience development with someuse of relevant digital marketing tools. Limited justification forthe audience need for the product, service, or campaign. || Little attempt at audience identification or development. Limited or no use of relevant digital marketing tools e.g. persona developers. Justification and the business case for the product, service, or campaign missing or poorly identified.
+
# Kirui, K. E. J., & Ndalo, A. M. (2016). Role of ICT in enabling high quality OER for teacher education and training in Dadaab refugee settlement in Kenya. Research Journal of Education, 2 (1), 7-14. Retrieved from: http://arpgweb.com/pdf-files/rje-2 (1)7-14.pdf.
|-
+
# Lewis, N. (2014, March 20). Moodle vs. ATutor which is better? Retrieved from: http://www. inmoodforlms.com/moodle-vs-atutor-which-is-better/.
|'''Digital marketing strategy (25 points)''' || Digital marketing strategy reflects deep analysis and critical thinking. All suggested strategies are developedand aligned with best practices. All suggestions are clearly articulated and justified. Brief conclusion summarises key highlight || Digital marketing strategy reflects high analysis and critical thinking. Most suggested strategies are developed and aligned with best practices. Most  suggestions are clearly articulated and managed. Brief conclusion to the point with some key highlights summarised. || Digital marketing strategy reflects some analysis and critical thinking. Some suggested strategies are developed and aligned with best practices, but these are limited. Some strategies are clearly articulated however others could be difficultto implement. Conclusion provides a couple of key highlights || Digital marketing strategy does not reflect any analysis or critical thinking. Strategies are either missing or poorly defined and misaligned with best practices. What strategies there are could be difficult to manage or support. Limited or missing conclusion
+
# Lifelong Learning Programme (2014, August 27). Kenyatta University. Retrieved from: http:// poerup.referata.com/wiki/Kenyatta_University.
|-
+
# Ministry of Information and Communication, MIC (2006). National Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Policy. Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: http://www.researchictafrica. net/countries/kenya/National_ICT_Policy_2006.pdf.
| '''Document quality and sources used(25 points)''' || The document is well presented, grammatically correct with a wide range of sources used and correctly acknowledged. Appropriate graphics and tables used to support the analysis || The document is generally well-presented, grammatically correct and uses a good range of sources correctly acknowledged. Some appropriate graphics and tables used to support the analysis.|| The document is presented to a satisfactory standard. Some grammatical errors. Limited range ofsources used and correctly acknowledged. Limited use of graphics or tablesto support analysis. || Poorly presented with little attention tocorrect grammar. Limited sources used. Some acknowledged correctly. Limited or no use of graphics or tables to support the plan.
+
# Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MOEST, 2012). ICT Integration in Education. Nairobi, Kenya.
|-
+
# Moon, B. (2008). Rethinking the role of the university in teacher education: The Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) experience. In: Presentation to the ACU Conference of Executive Heads, 28-30.
 
|}
 

Revision as of 12:39, 25 January 2023

1 Module 4 - Richard's page

2 Learning Outcomes

  1. Understand Open learning education; history, benefits and limitations
  2. Explore the different types of OER in Kenyan Context
  3. Creation of OER and software for OER creation

Time: 72 Hours Description:

Steps to be undertaken in this project

  1. Introducing the project: defining objectives, outlining target and activities, explaining resources available for further reading
  2. Review and reflect on the different types of OER
  3. Create and share own OER

3 Introduction to OER

Open Educational Learning (OEL) is described as the whole set of practices around the creation, use, and management of OER, according to the OPAL (2010) report. This includes any supporting tools, as well as the resources themselves and any enabling frameworks. OEP includes practically all stakeholders involved in supporting and managing learning provision in educational systems, and it encompasses the complete spectrum of policy, research, and practice around OER. The OEP addresses the whole OER governance community, including policymakers, organizational managers/administrators, educational professionals, and learners.

Open Educational Practices (OEP) are practices that support the (re)use and production of OER through institutional policies, promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers of their lifelong learning paths, according to Camilleri, Ehlers, and Pawlowski (2014).

Characteristics of OER

They go beyond access into open learning architectures and seek ways to use OER for transforming learning They focus on learning as a construction of knowledge assets, which they share with others and receive feedback and reviews They follow the notion of improving quality through external validation because of the importance of sharing research findings.

3.1 Background

Kenya's dedication to ICT integration and application in education. Working with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology as well as other educational organizations such as the Teacher Service Commission and the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development on the design of Open Educational Resources and ICT integration in education, UNESCO and COL, in particular, have played and continue to play an important role. Kenya is a signatory to the OER Paris Declaration, which guides the work of both UNESCO and COL. The first Kenyan Government policy to address OEL in higher education was the Act of Parliament of 1966, which established the Board of Adult Education. OEL has been promoted as an alternate method of education by a number of commissions and investigations since independence. Session Paper No. 1 of 2005 (Republic of Kenya, 2005) advocates the formation of an open university and the use of OEL in human resource development at all levels, according to the most recent government effort. Kenya has seen a fast increase of higher education institutions in recent decades. This might be linked to ;

An increase in demand for higher education, which is partly due to improved knowledge of the educational benefits (Khan, 2001). As a result of the rising demand, OEL has quickly become an acknowledged and important part of mainstream educational platforms in both developed and developing countries, with a focus on the latter (UNESCO, 2002). The popularity of distant learning has grown as a result of several causes. One such aspect is family obligations, particularly among women. In terms of time and resources, women, particularly in Kenya, face a variety of challenges that males do not. However, the introduction of OEL has expanded women's options and made education and training more accessible to them because they may now study from the comfort of their own homes. It enables individuals to learn at their own pace and seek out and acquire skills for personal development while also taking care of their families (Brunner, 1991). Technological, cultural, and social revolutions have impacted us, profoundly altering how we live, work, and study (Wheeler, 2000; Edwards, 1997). Even the most solid of our social institutions, such as education, have been overwhelmed by accelerating change, and the rate of change will undoubtedly rise in the years ahead. African countries continue to face internal conflicts as well as regional interstate battles caused by religious, ethnic, economic, or political disagreements. The number of migrants and persons who are homeless or displaced has risen dramatically, demanding more flexible schooling options. The adaptability of open, distant, and e-learning approaches has aided their ascension as the major mode of lifelong learning.

3.2 Advantages

  1. Convenience: E-learning materials are stored on the learner's computer and accessed at any time. They do not necessitate the presence of the learner in a classroom. The system also allows students to download and save learning materials for later use.
  2. Cost Effectiveness: students can choose from a large range of courses and make the selection depending on their needs.
  3. Up-to-date learning materials: study materials in OEL systems are updated more frequently than in the classroom-based education systems. Once the study materials are placed in the system, they can be updated without changing the whole materials and the materials can be available and reused for longer times.
  4. Flexibility: OEL is a flexible way of learning for many students. Most of the study materials are stored for the students to access whenever they want. Students can also choose between an instructor-led and a self-learning system. It is also possible for students to skip over the study materials they already know and choose the ones they want to learn.
  5. Global learning : E-learning technologies contribute to the creation of a global learning society by allowing anybody to access study resources regardless of their physical location. Learners may now contribute to study materials using the mechanisms that are now accessible, which helps to keep the contents up to date.
  6. Scalability: The number of students in virtual classrooms or e-learning systems can be extremely small or very large without affecting the overall cost.
  7. Better retention: E-video learning's and audio assets make the learning experience more enjoyable. They assist students in remembering information for a long time and can also be accessed at any time, allowing for greater retention through repetition.

3.3 Disadvantages

  1. Regulations on Intellectual Property Rights and Copyright: Intellectual property rights (IPR) and copyright restrictions, which require the consent of IPR owners for their works to be publicly available, are one of the problems related with OER integration in Kenya.
  2. Low motivation: Because there is no one to supervise them, students with low motivation are more likely to fail to meet their goals. Students are in charge of the course's routine and organization, which might lead to lethargy and low motivation at times and thus may drop out of the course early due to a lack of a set schedule and deadlines.
  3. Level of Knowledge and Skills: According to studies by Ochukut (2013), Gakindi (2010), and Ngimwa & Wilson, the level of knowledge and skills in Kenya related OER is still poor (2012). Some people were also using OER resources without realizing it. Furthermore, people's readiness to participate in and consume OER content was shown to be hampered by a lack of computer literacy. Some senior academics, for example, who are computer illiterate, may be hesitant to participate in technology-related projects.
  4. Existing OEP Policies and Strategies: OEP policies and strategies define the rules and regulations that govern OEP implementation across an organization. OEP strategies and policies are weak or not fully developed at both the national and institutional levels, according to certain studies on OER in Sub-Saharan Africa (Ochukut, 2013; Gakindi, 2010; Ngimwa and Wilson, 2012). For example, according to a case study of Africa Nazarene University, the university has a policy and procedure structure, but it is not yet fully matched to OER and ODeL. (Ooko & Mays, 2015).
  5. Compatibility issues: Because there are so many different learning systems, study materials created with one system may not be compatible with another. Mobile devices, such as iPads, for example, prevent flash videos from being played in their browsers. There are some limits to the amount of websites that may be viewed, therefore access to websites may not be free everywhere.
  6. Unreliable Content: The content available on the Internet is not necessarily dependable. There are publishers that intentionally mislead readers and provide incorrect information. As a result, readers must exercise caution while looking for information and ensure that the content is reliable before studying it.
  7. Social Isolation: Lack of a genuine/real classroom or classmates may cause social isolation for certain students . The lack of real people surrounding them while learning, students may feel socially isolated at times.S
  8. OER Funding: While e-learning is typically a less expensive alternative in the long term, it may be prohibitively expensive for some institutions at initially. For new or small institutions, purchasing new equipment such as computers, projectors, or software all at once may be difficult. In addition, compared to traditional approaches, the expense of generating training materials is significant. Financial sustainability is necessary for successful OER implementation in Kenya because relying on money is a short-term solution and a weak motivation for participating in OER. According to Ochukut (2013), some colleges in Kenya, such as UON, may not have additional resources to allocate to OER, which may hinder OER implementation.
  9. Students with disabilities. Companies frequently target broad user groups when developing new learning products or study settings. They may not always consider disabled students, such as those who are Visually Impaired, because the development costs may be prohibitive.
  10. Not all effective: Because e-learning does not allow for two-way communication, face-to-face study materials may be more successful in some circumstances.

4 OER platforms in Kenya

Kenya has various International and Regional OERs ; Teacher education, agriculture, secondary education, and non-formal education. Among them ; the OER Africa initiative, the Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA )program, and the African Virtual University (AVU) teacher education OER modules and repository

4.1 Kenyata University

The Digital School of Virtual and Open Learning (DSVOL), originally the Institute of Open, Distance, and e-Learning, was founded in 2014 with the goal of providing education instruction at any time and anywhere. The school provides programs at all levels, including diploma, undergraduate, and postgraduate. The school has built regional centers to give onsite lessons in different places around the country, in addition to providing online help to its students. The DSVOL also gives eLearners with tablets that are pre-loaded with content from the units for which they have registered. Under the Creative Commons License, the school provides a library internet repository containing open access full-text books. Books, book reviews, book chapters, conference workshop and seminar papers, undergraduate projects, research papers, policies and reports, newsletters, service delivery charters, graduation booklets, public lectures and speeches, Masters and PhD theses and dissertations can all be found in the repository.

4.2 TESSA

TESAA is a network of teachers and teacher educators collaborating with the Open University in the United Kingdom to increase the quality of classroom practice and access to teacher education resources throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. It accomplishes this by providing a variety of Open Educational Resources (OER) to promote teacher education in schools. It's a global collaboration that includes the BBC World Service Trust, the Commonwealth of Learning, and the South African Institute for Distance Education (SAIDE), but it focuses on teacher education requirements in nine African countries (Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) The program began with thirteen African universities as founding members, with ambitions to expand to additional nations and institutions in the future. The TESSA OER consists of 75 study modules in Science, Literacy, Mathematics, Social Studies and the Arts, and Life skills (Wolfenden et al. 2010), and is available in four languages. The State of Open Educational Resources in Kenya Right Now (Arabic, English, French and Kiswahili) The uniqueness of the TESSA OER program is in that it is targets teachers and places the end user, the teacher educator, at the core of the initiative. The great majority of OER were developed in collaboration by teacher educators from all around Africa (over 100 authors have been involved). Both the contents and the portal were developed after considerable consultation with possible user groups, and they were based on local knowledge, materials, and approaches.

4.3 Egerton University

Egerton College of Open and Remote Learning (CODL) was formed in 2002 with the mission of promoting and facilitating the spread of open and distance education. CODL has been able to provide a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate programs through local and international partnerships, including the Bachelor of Commerce, Bachelor of Arts, M.A in Linguistics, M.A in Economics, and Master of Community Development. The CODL has partnered with Kenya's Department of Defense to provide training to military personnel furthering their education as well as formed worldwide partnerships with prominent distance learning universities in Africa and the United Kingdom, including the University of South Africa (UNISA), the Open University of Tanzania, Africa Virtual University, and the Open University of the United Kingdom.

4.4 Boarderles Higher Education for Refugees

BHER is a collaboration of Kenyan and Canadian universities (MoI University, Kenyatta University, University of British Columbia, and York University) with the mission of providing education and training to refugees and certifying the many untrained volunteer teachers. The BHER initiative is working with refugees in Dadaab, Kenya, one of the world's largest refugee camps. BHER aims to increase access to educational possibilities in order to bridge the gap between refugees and the rest of the world.

4.5 Africa Nazarine University

The ANU Institute of Open and Distance Learning (IODL) was founded in 2011 to help mature and self-motivated learners, often those already in the workforce, pursue their studies without the limitations of full-time attendance at campus-based lectures (Ooko & Mays, 2015).The ANU IODL implements CAMS (an academic management system) and Moodle (a learning management system customized for ANU as "ENAZ") to allow distant learners to register for tutorials, discussions, and continuous assessment procedures online. Most students are opting for non-traditional learning options such as evening programs, school-based learning, and online learning.

5 Deciding to implement OER

ASome guiding questions include:

  1. What do I want my students to take away from this experience?
  2. How will I persuade students that the concepts I'm presenting are worthwhile?
  3. How will I test my students' grasp of fundamental concepts?
  4. Is my target demographic geographically or ethnically specific?
  5. Are there any cultural differences to consider before developing OER?

5.1 OER TECH Considerations

5.2 HighTech

There are several platforms that offer professional tools for content production, some of which are quite simple to use.

Press Books (where this material is produced) is a publishing program that makes it simple to create interactive e-books and other text-based content. Git Book: This open source application, developed by GitHub, allows one to build a book that will be posted on the GitHub platform. One may write your book in Markdown, include photographs, and incorporate web material. Book down is an open-source R tool that makes it easier to write books and long-form articles/reports using R Markdown. Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web tool that lets one create and share documents with live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative prose.

5.3 LowTech

According to Affordable Learning Georgia. (2015) one simple way to create educational resources is by using familiar word processing tools such as Microsoft Word, Google Docs, or Libre Office. These softwares includes most of the features needed for standard content, and the files can be easily exported as a PDF or printed.

LibreOffice Draw: Draw allows you to create everything from a fast sketch to a big plan, as well as communicate with graphics and diagrams. Draw is a fantastic tool for creating technical drawings and other visual representations. Inkscape: An open source application for creating and editing PDFs, as well as vector drawing and graphics. If your document contains a lot of images, this is a superior option for PDF editing.

5.4 MediumTech

A website or hosted resource is another typical approach to produce or edit educational resources. This could be done through the use of a blog, a static website, or a wiki. WordPress can be an excellent option for these medium-tech tasks.

Gnu Image Manipulation Program (GIMP): GIMP is an open source, cross-platform image editor that is available for GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows, and other operating systems. OER Commons Open Author: Open Author assists you in creating Open Educational Resources, lesson plans, and courses that you may freely distribute on the OER Commons platform. Pressbooks is a straightforward book formatting program. Some universities, such as Iowa State University, offer author assistance for publishing in Pressbooks via our Digital Press.

6 References

  1. Ehlers, U. D. (2011). Extending the territory: From open educational resources to open educational practices. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 15 (2), [1–10].
  2. Ernsting, A. (2016). DLR group launches design work at Kenyatta University. Retrieved from: http://www.dlrgroup.com/about/news/kenyatta-university-design-launch/
  3. Egerton University (2010). Egerton university institutional repository. Retrieved from: http://irlibrary. egerton.ac.ke/jspui/
  4. ICT Authority, Kenya (2014). The Kenya national ICT masterplan: Towards a digital Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: https://www.kenet.or.ke/sites/default/files/Final%20ICT%20 Masterplan%20Apr%202014.pdf.
  5. Juma, M. N. (2001). The African Virtual University: The case of Kenyatta University, Kenya. Commonwealth case studies in education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ ED472311.pdf.
  6. Vision 2030 Republic of Kenya (2007). Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: http://theredddesk.org/ sites/default/files/vision_2030_brochure__july_2007.pdf.
  7. Kenyatta University (2014). Digital school of virtual and open learning (DSVOL). Retrieved online: http://ku.ac.ke/dsvol/index.php/about-us.html.
  8. Kirui, K. E. J., & Ndalo, A. M. (2016). Role of ICT in enabling high quality OER for teacher education and training in Dadaab refugee settlement in Kenya. Research Journal of Education, 2 (1), 7-14. Retrieved from: http://arpgweb.com/pdf-files/rje-2 (1)7-14.pdf.
  9. Lewis, N. (2014, March 20). Moodle vs. ATutor which is better? Retrieved from: http://www. inmoodforlms.com/moodle-vs-atutor-which-is-better/.
  10. Lifelong Learning Programme (2014, August 27). Kenyatta University. Retrieved from: http:// poerup.referata.com/wiki/Kenyatta_University.
  11. Ministry of Information and Communication, MIC (2006). National Information & Communication Technology (ICT) Policy. Nairobi, Kenya. Retrieved from: http://www.researchictafrica. net/countries/kenya/National_ICT_Policy_2006.pdf.
  12. Ministry of Education Science and Technology (MOEST, 2012). ICT Integration in Education. Nairobi, Kenya.
  13. Moon, B. (2008). Rethinking the role of the university in teacher education: The Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) experience. In: Presentation to the ACU Conference of Executive Heads, 28-30.