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“The technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) framework presents a way of thinking about effective technology integration, specifically knowledge associated with integrating technology effectively into learning environments. [...] TPACK has the promise to shape the way teacher educators and professional developers prepare teachers to integrate technology (Polly & Mims, in press).” (Polly and Brantley-Dias, 2009:46).

“The basis of good teaching with technology and requir[ing] an understanding of the representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that students face; knowledge of students' prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and knowledge of how technologies can be used to built on existing knowledge and to develop new epistemologies or strengthen old ones” (Mishra & Koehler, 2006:1029, cited by Barbour, 2009:56).

The TPACK model emphasizes that successful teachers have content competency (CK) , pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technical skills (TK) and that they are able to relate these forms of knowledge. A good teacher is able to design an aligned, appropriate techno-pedagogical solution for teaching a given content.

Technological pedagogical and content knowledge framework (drawn by DKS in 2009)

The TPACK model

In the website ( “At the heart of the TPACK framework, is the complex interplay of three primary forms of knowledge: Content (CK), Pedagogy (PK), and Technology (TK). The TPACK approach goes beyond seeing these three knowledge bases in isolation. The TPACK framework goes further by emphasizing the kinds of knowledge that lie at the intersections between three primary forms: Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technological Content Knowledge (TCK), Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK), and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK). Effective technology integration for pedagogy around specific subject matter requires developing sensitivity to the dynamic, transactional relationship between these components of knowledge situated in unique contexts.”

Below is an official picture dated 2012 from the the Tpack website

Technological pedagogical and content knowledge framework, Reproduced by permission of the publisher, © 2012 by”

In 2018, Mishra (2019) added the context to the model arguing that conteXtual knowledge (XK) in the outer circle is another knowledge domain that teachers must possess to integrate technology in teaching. “It highlights the organizational and situational constraints that teachers work within. The success of their efforts depends not as much on their knowledge of T, P, C and its overlaps, but rather on their knowledge of the context. This allows us to go beyond seeing teachers as designers of curriculum within their classrooms but rather as intrapreneurs—knowing how their organization functions, and how levers of power and influence can effect sustainable change. This is XK—Contextual Knowledge.”

The picture now looks like this:

Revised version of the TPACK image. © Punya Mishra, 2018/2019. Reproduced with permission



  • AACTE (Ed.). (2008). Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators. New York: Routledge.
  • Barbour, Michael; Lloyd P. Rieber, Gretchen Thomas, and Dawn Rauscher (2009). Homemade PowerPoint Games: A Constructionist Alternative to WebQuests, TechTrends 53 (5), 54-59. DOI:10.1007/s11528-009-0326-2
  • Graham, Charles R.; Nicolette Burgoyne, Pamela Cantrell, Leigh Smith, Larry St. Clair, and Ron Harris (2009). TPACK Development in Science Teaching: Measuring the TPACK Confidence of Inservice Science Teachers. Techtrends, 53 (5), 70-79. DOI:10.1007/s11528-009-0328-0
  • Harvey, D. M., & Caro, R. A. (2017). Review of Herring, M.C., Koehler, M.J., and Mishra, P. (Eds.) (2016). Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Educators. (2nd edition). New York: Routledge. TechTrends, 61(4), 404–405.
  • Herring, M.C., Koehler, M.J., & Mishra, P. (Eds.) (2016). Handbook of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for Educators. (2nd edition). New York: Routledge.
  • Hofer, M., & Swan, K. O. (2006). Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Action : A Case Study of a Middle School Digital Documentary Project. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 179-200.
  • Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2008). Introducing TPCK. In AACTE Committee on Innovation and Technology (Ed.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) for educators (pp. 3-29). New York: Routledge.
  • Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2005). What happens when teachers design educational technology? The development of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 32(2), 131-152.
  • Lim, C. P. (2009). Formulating guidelines for instructional planning in technology enhanced learning environments. Journal Of Interactive Learning Research, 20(1), 55-74. AACE. Retrieved from
  • Nkwenti Ndongfack, M. (2015). Mastery of Active and Shared Learning Processes for Techno-Pedagogy (MASLEPT): A Model for Teacher Professional Development on Technology Integration. Creative Education, 6, 32-45.
  • Niess, M. L., Ronau, R. N., Shafer, K. G., Driskell, S. O., Harper, S. R., & Johnston, C. (2009). Mathematics Teacher TPACK Standards and Development Model. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9, 4-24.
  • Polly, D., & Mims, C. (in press). Supporting the integration of Web 2.0 technologies in professional development programs. In T. Kidd & I. Chen (Eds.), Wired for learning: An educators guide to Web 2.0. Hershey, PA: Information Science Reference.
  • Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. (This is the original)