TILT design

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TILT (tools, interfaces, learner's needs, and tasks) method is an instructional design method.

TILT first asks the designer to answer "what tasks need to be undertaken in the software?" (an activity design point) and then "what tools are provided to cope with those tasks?" (an environmental design point) (Soloway et al., 1994 cited by Rick and Lamberty, 2004)

  1. Task: Coaching is a scaffolding technique that could be used to help students acquire knowledge and the specific practices of a task domain. This technique is popular in intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) (Wenger, 1989).
  2. Tools: In order to support a learner growing in expertise, the tools must be adaptable.
  3. Interlace: In order to enable learners to express themselves and communicate, the interface must scaffold the use of different media and modes of expression.

(Soloway et al., 1994: 41).

See also: Project-based science model and Medium-based design


  • Rick, J. & Lamberty, K. K. (2004). Medium-Based Design: Supporting Bricoleur Designers. In Y. Kafai et al. (Eds.), Embracing Diversity in the Learning Sciences: The proceedings of the Sixth International Conference of the Learning Sciences (ICLS). (pp. 630). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. PDF Preprint
  • Soloway, E., Guzdial, M., and Hay, K. E. (1994). Learner-centered design: The challenge for HCI in the 21st century. Interactions of the ACM, April 1994.
  • Soloway, E., Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. E. (1994) Learner-Centered Design: The Challenge for HCI in the 21st Century, Interactions of the ACM, Vol. 1, No. 2, April, 36-48 Abstract / PDF
  • Shari L. Jackson, Steven J. Stratford, Joseph S. Krajcik, Elliot Soloway, Learner-Centered Software Design to Support Students Building Models, AERA 1995 HTML Preprint