Quality models and standards in education
This article should summarize approaches used to evaluate educational systems or parts of educational system or aspects of educational systems such as technology-enhanced learning.
According to Ebba Ossiannilsson, “Quality in TEL, can be discussed and measured from a vareity of perspectives and approaches. First, quality has to be considered at different levels, i.e. meso,- miso,- and macro level. Second, there are a huge variety of stakeholders whohave an interest in quality. Third, there are different approaches, as normbased versus processbased quality assurance and /or quality enhancement. Fourth, the maturity level has to be taken into consideration. Fifth, and last, or maybe even as a first issue: quality is always time, context, and culture dependent, and quality is always in the eyes of the beholder” (retrieved, May 7 2019).
Quality, in education, can be analyzed at three levels according to Ebba Ossiannilsson:
- The macro level refers to the entire institution, not only its strategy and mission but also its infrastructure, allocation of resources (costs and time), incentives, and support for students and staff.
- The meso level refers to the department or faculty and includes the same elements as the macro level
- The micro level refers to course offerings, such as curricula, course structure and design, assessment, learning outcomes, and method of delivery.
2 Evaluation grids
2.1 10 Elements of High Quality Digital Learning (USA)
- Student Eligibility
- All students are digital learners.
- Student Access
- All students have access to high quality digital learning.
- Personalized Learning
- All students can use digital learning to customize their education.
- All students progress based on demonstrated competency.
- Quality Content
- Digital content and courses are high quality.
- Quality Instruction
- Digital instruction is high quality.
- Quality Choices
- All students have access to multiple high quality digital providers.
- Assessment and Accountability
- Student learning is the metric for evaluating the quality of content and instruction.
- Funding creates incentives for performance, options and innovation.
- Infrastructure supports digital learning.
- E-learning quality assurance standards, organizations and research, By Tony Bates, August 15, 2010. This blog post provides a series of good links sorted by country.
- Benchmarking e-learning (Wikipedia), a list of benchmarks used to assess e-learning programmes.
3.2 Introduction/use of ICT
- 10 Elements of High Quality Digital Learning Quote: “was released at the 2010 Excellence in Action National Summit on Education Reform in Washington, DC. During the fall of 2010, the Digital Learning Council defined the elements and identified the actions that need to be taken by lawmakers and policymakers to foster a high-quality, customized education for all students. This includes technology-enhanced learning in traditional schools, online and virtual learning, and blended learning that combines online and onsite learning.”
4 References and bibliography
4.1 Osiannilsson Bibliography (focus on online program evaluation)
This bibliography on "Quality models in online and open education around the globe" was reproduced from Ossiannilsson et al. 2015 
It is available under a Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0) license, i.e. you must cite the above reference
- African Virtual University (2014) (Ed D Olcott) African Virtual University Quality Assurance (QA) framework for Open, Distance and e-learning Programmes. URI: http://www.avu.org/images/Documents/QA_FRAMEWORK.pdf
- de los Arcos B, Farrow R, Perryman L.-A, Pitt R & Weller M (2014) OER Evidence Report 2013-2014. OER Research Hub. URI: http://oerresearchhub.org/about-2/reports/
- Bacsich P (2006) The relevance of the MIT90s framework to benchmarking e-learning. MIT90s-survey-published 15th Sept 2006.
- Bates T (23 February 2015) What do we mean by quality when teaching in a digital age? (Blogpost), URI: http://www.tonybates.ca/2015/02/23/what-do-we-mean-by-quality-when-teaching-in-a-digital-age/
- Bates T (15th August 2010) E-learning quality assurance standards, organisations and research. (Blogpost), URI:http://www.tonybates.ca/2010/08/15/e-learning-quality-assurance-standards-organizations-and-research/
- Barefoot H, Gamble M, O’Hare D, Kuit J, Mellar H, Newland B , Papaefthimiou M; Martin Oliver; Webb E (2011) A Toolkit for Harnessing Quality Assurance Processes for Technology-enhanced Learning. QAE.
- Steering Group of the Quality Assurance – Quality Enhancement in e-Learning Special Interest Group. Version 2011_02_20, URI: http://qaqe-sig.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/Toolkit_version_2011_9_3.pdf
- Camilleri A F, Ehlers U & Pawlowski J (2014) State of the art review of quality issues related to Open Educational Resources (OER). JRC Scientific and policy reports. Institute for Prospective technological Studies (IPTS).
- Camilleri A F & Tannhäuser A C (2013) Assessment and Recognition of Open Learning. In Openness and Education (Vol. 1). Emerald Group.
- Castaño-Muñoz J, Redecker C, Riina Vuorikari R, Punie Y (2014) Open Education 2030: planning the future of adult learning in Europe. Open Learning 28(3). URI: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/260719655_Open_Education_2030_planning_the_future_of_adult_learning_in_Europe
- CHEA (CHEA International quality group) (January 2014) Higher Education outside Colleges and Universities: How do we measure quality? Policy brief number 2. Washington: CHEA International quality group.
- Dahl Jörgensen M, Kristensen S, Wipf A & Delplace S (2014) Quality tools for professional education review and improvement. PHExcel Consortium
- Daniel Sir J (1996) Mega Universities and Knowledge Media. Technology strategies for Higher Education. Routledge.
- Devedzic V, Scpanovic S & Kraljevski (2011) E-learning benchmarking. Methodology and tools review. Report 1.3. DL@Web. Tempus project. URI: http://www.dlweb.kg.ac.rs/
- European Commission (2013) Opening up education to boost innovation and digital skills in schools and universities. URI: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-13-859_en.htm
- European Commission (2Biggs, J. B., & Collis, K. F. (2014). Evaluating the Quality of Learning : The SOLO
Taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). Academic Press.014) The European Union’s High level Group on the Modernisation of Higher Education. New modes of learning and teaching in universities.
- Ehlers U D (2013) A Guide to quality, evaluation and assessment for future learning. New York: Springer.
- Fossland T, Rye Ramberg K & Gjerdrum E (Ed) (2013) Ulike forståelser av kvalitet i norsk, fleksibel høyereutdanning – eksempler fra teknologi og læring på og utenfor campus. Norgesuniversitetets skriftserie nr. 1/2013 (In Norwegian). URI: http://norgesuniversitetet.no/files/ulike_forstaelser_av_kvalitet.pdf
- Frydenberg J (2002) Quality standards in e-learning: A matrix of analyses. The International Review Research in Open and Distance Learning 3(2).
- Gaebel M, Kupriyanova V, Morais R & Colucci W (2014) E-learning in European Higher Education institutions. Results of a mapping survey conducted in October-December 2013. Brussels: European University Association (EUA).
- Hegde G & Ponmudiraj BBiggs, J. B., & Collis, K. F. (2014). Evaluating the Quality of Learning : The SOLO
Taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). Academic Press. (Ed) (2013) Guidelines for the Creation of the internal quality assurance cell (IQAC) and submission of annual quality assurance report (AQAR) in accredited institutions. National assessment and accreditation council. Nagarbhavi, Bangalore: AQAAR.
- ICDE Strategic plan 2013.2016. URI: www.icde.org
- INNOQUAL (2014) Special Issue on Quality in Massive Open Online Courses 2 (3). URI: http://papers.efquel.org/index.php/innoqual/issue/view/4
- Lifewide Learning & Education in Universities and Colleges, Edited by Norman Jackson N & Jenny Willis J (Eds) (2014) Lifewide Learning & Education in Universities and College. URI: http://www.learninglives.co.uk/
- James R, Tynan B, Marshall, Webster L, Suddaby G & Lewis R (2011) Regulatory framework for distance education: A pilot study in the Southwest Pacific/south East Asia region. Final report. December 2011. ICDE.
- Jaschik S & Ledeman D (Eds 2014) Survey of faculty attitudes on technology. A study by Gallup and Inside Higher Ed. Washington: Gallup and Inside higher ed.
- Jung I & Latchem C (Ed) (2012) Quality assurance and accreditation in distance education and e-learning. Models, policies and research. New York: Routledge. URI: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415887359/
- Jung I, Meng Wong & Belawati T (2013) Quality assurance in distance education and e-learning. Challenges and solutions from Asia. Los Angeles: SAGE.
- Kawachi (2014) Quality assurance guidelines for Open Educational Resources: TIPS Framework. Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia, New Delhi.
- Krull G, Mallinson B & Mhlanga E (2013) Embedding Quality Assurance in Online Course Design (An African Perspective). E-learning Africa and SAIDE. URI: http://www.slideshare.net/greigk/embedding-quality-assurance-in-online-course-design-an-african-perspective
- Kuo T (2014) The quality assurance of e-learning in Taiwan. National open university, Taiwan. Department of Information Management. URI: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhi-a7FgyRs
- Mapstone S (Ed) Buttendijk S. & Wiberg E (2014) Online learning at research intensive universities. LERU Advisory paper no 16, June 2014. URI: http://www.leru.org/files/publications/LERU_AP16__Online_Learning_at_RIUs_final.pdf
- NAHE [Swedish National Agency for Higher Education/ Högskoleverket] (2008) E-learning quality. Aspects and criteria for evaluation of e-learning in Higher Education. Högskoleverkets rapportserie 2008:11R. Solna: Högskoleverket. URI: http://www.hsv.se/download/18.8f0e4c9119e2b4a60c800028057/0811R.pdf
- NOU 2014: 5 (2014) MOOCs for Norway – New digital learning methods in Higher Education. New digital learning methods in Higher Education. Official Norwegian Reports NOU 2014: 5.URI: https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/ff86edace9874505a3381b5daf6848e6/en-gb/pdfs/nou201420140005000en_pdfs.pdf
- NVAO (2014) MOOCs and online Higher Education. A Survey. The Accreditation Organisation of the Netherlands and Flanders (NVAO). URI: http://www.nvao.net/page/downloads/NVAO_MOOCs_and_online_HE_A_survey_June_2014.pdf
- Nordkvelle Y, Fossland T & Netteland G (Ed) (2013) Kvalitet i höjre utdanning. Norges universitet Oslo: Akademiska Forlag (In Norwegian). URI: http://norgesuniversitetet.no/files/kvalitet_i_fleksibel_hoyere_utdanning.pdf
- Op de Beek I, Camilleri A F & Bijnes M (2012) Research results on European and international e-learning quality, certification and benchmarking schemes and methodologies. VISCED project. background documentation and project research results. Brussels: EFQUEL. The Open Education Handbook, LinkedUp. URI: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3v5eAZeR0ERWmo1aDdRVWtNUkU/view
- Ossiannilsson E (2012) Benchmarking e-learning in Higher Education: lessons learned from international projects. Doctoral dissertation, University of Oulu Graduate School; University of Oulu, Faculty of Technology, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, University of Oulu, Finland. URI: http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789526200415/isbn9789526200415.pdf
- Punie Y (2104) Report and recommendations Foresights on Open Education 2030. European Commission Joint Research Centre – Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.
- QAQE in e-learning special interest group (2010) QAA Code of practice section 2: Collaborative provision and flexible and distributed learning (included e-learning). A commentary & critique. qaqe_report-final. URI: http://qaqe-sig.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/QAQE_Report_final1.pdf
- Rama K, Hope A (Ed) & Coomaraswamy U (Co- ed) (2009) Quality assurance toolkit for distance Higher Education institutions and programmes. Trust, access, innovation, cost-effective, faculty satisfaction, learning effectiveness, continuous improvement, excellence, leadership. Commonwealth of learning. Vancouver: Commonwealth of learning.
- Rosewell J (January 2004) OpenupEd label, quality benchmarks for MOOCs. Heerlen: EADTU.
- Rosewell J & Jansen D (2014) The OpenupEd quality label: benchmarks for MOOCs. Volume 2, No 3, 2014 and Special Issue on Quality in Massive Open Online Courses. INNOQUAL – International Journal for Innovation and Quality in Learning. URI: http://papers.efquel.org/index.php/innoqual/article/view/160
- Rodrigo C, Read T, Santamaria M, & Sánchez-Elvira A (2014) OpenupEd Label for MOOCs quality assurance: UNED COMA initial self-evaluation. Proceedings of V Congreso Internacional sobre Calidad y Accesibilidad en la Formación Virtual (CAFVIR 2014) L. Bengoechea, R. Hernández, & J. R. Hilera (Eds.), Universidad Galileo (Guatemala), pp. 551 – 555 ISBN: 978-9929-40-497-7.
- Sankey M (2013) ACODE. Benchmarks for technology-enhanced learning. URI: http://www.acode.edu.au/pluginfile.php/646/mod_resource/content/2/ACODE_Benchmarks_Report_2014.pdf
- Soinila M & Maria Stalter M (2010) Quality assurance of E-learning ENQA Workshop Report 14. URI: http://www.enqa.eu/indirme/papers-and-reports/workshop-and-seminar/ENQA_wr_14.pdf
The Arab Organisation for Quality Assurance in Education (AROQA) – The Digital Education Initiative Holds the Founding Meeting of the Digital Education Accreditation Taskforce. URI: http://aroqa.org/article/25716/The-Digital-Education-Initiative-Holds-the-Founding-Meeting-of-the-Digital-Education-Accreditation-Taskforce
4.2 Other (mostly focus on learning evaluation and quality of learning interactions)
- Biggs, J. B., & Collis, K. F. (2014). Evaluating the Quality of Learning : The SOLO Taxonomy (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome). Academic Press.
- Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (1999). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment : Computer conferencing in higher education. The internet and higher
education, 2(2), 87‑105.
- Harvey, L., & Knight, P. T. (1996). Transforming Higher Education. ERIC.
- Krange, I., Fjuk, A., Larsen, A., & Ludvigsen, S. (2002). Describing Construction of Knowledge through Identification of Collaboration Patterns in 3D Learning. Computer Support for Collaborative Learning: Foundations for a CSCL Community: Proceedings of CSCL 2002 Boulder, Colorado, USA January 7-11, 2002, 82.
- Meier, A., Spada, H., & Rummel, N. (2007). A rating scheme for assessing the quality of computer-supported collaboration processes. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2(1), 63‑86.
- Newman, D. R., Webb, B., & Cochrane, C. (1995). A content analysis method to measure critical thinking in face-to-face and computer supported group learning. Interpersonal Computing and Technology, 3(2), 56‑77.
- Peggy, N., & Mike, O. (2012). Achieving Quality Learning in Higher Education. Routledge.
- Quilter, S., & Weber, R. K. (2004). Quality Assurance for Online Teaching in Higher Education : Considering and Identifying Best Practice for E-Learning. International Journal on E-Learning, 3(2), 64‑73.
- Sorensen, E. K., & Takle, E. S. (2001). Collaborative Knowledge Building in Web-Based Learning : Assessing the Quality of Dialogue. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED466217
4.3 Cited references
- Ossiannilsson, Ebba; Williams, Keith; Camilleri, Anthony F.; Brown, Mark: Quality models in online and open education around the globe. State of the art and recommendations. Oslo : International Council for Open and Distance Education 2015, 52 S. - URN: urn:nbn:de:0111-pedocs-108795