Learning surveys

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The purpose of this page is to create an inventory of some survey instruments that measure perception of learning, learning environments, etc.

Perception of learning and learning environments

The Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES)

Scott L. Walker (Curtin university) developed a Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES)



Taylor and Maor (2000) developed an instrument to study on-line environments called the "Constructivist On-Line Learning Environment Survey (COLLES). The survey includes six dimension with 24 statements (total).

How relevant is on-line learning to students' professional practices?
Does on-line learning stimulate students' critical reflective thinking?
To what extent do students engage on-line in rich educative dialogue?
Tutor Support
How well do tutors enable students to participate in on-line learning?
Peer Support
Is sensitive and encouraging support provided on-line by fellow students?
Do students and tutors make good sense of each other's on-line communications?

The surveys were available here (as of April 2019, the links seem to be broken)

Constructivist Learning Environments (CLES)

Paper (with one version at the end)

Perceived learning (Richmond, 1987)

Only one item:

  • “On a scale of 0 to 9, how much did you learn in this course, with 0 meaning you learned nothing and 9 meaning you learned more than in any other course you’ve had?”

Learning effectiveness (self-report)

Shih-Wei Chou & Chien-Hung Liu define learning effectiveness with four dimensions:

  • Performance
  • Self-efficacy
  • satisfaction
  • learning climate

The response items are in the article:

National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE)

Web site:

Australian National Student engagement

cognitive absorption and TAM

Raafat Saade and Bouchaib Bahli (2004) presented an extended TAM model. “In this study, an extended version of TAM which includes the concept of cognitive absorption (CA) was used. In this, CA (defined as a state of deep involvement with the ILS) is an antecedent to perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. This construct involves three dimensions: temporal dissociation, focused immersion, and heightened enjoyment” (Sadde and Bahli:318).

The three dimensions are measured in the following way:

Temporal dissociation (TD)
TD1 Sometimes I lose track of time when I am using the ILS
TD2 Time flies when I am using ILS
TD3 Most times when I get on to the ILS, I end up spending more time than I had planned
TD4 I often spend more time on the ILS than I intended
Focused immersion (FI)
FI1 When I am using the ILS I am able to block out most other distraction
FI2 While using the ILS, I am absorbed in what I am doing
FI3 While using the ILS, I am immersed in the task I am performing
Heightened enjoyment (HE)
HE1 I have fun interacting with the ILS
HE2 Using the ILS bores me
HE3 I enjoy using the ILS

Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance

Hassan M. Selim presented confirmatory factor models for four categories: (1) instructor; (2) student; (3) information technology; and (4) university support

Avalaible in the appendix:

Predicting Learning From Asynchronous Online Discussions

This article by Wu and Hiltz (2004) includes a Students’ Perception of Learning from Online Discussion scale.

Availability: Response items (in summary form) are in the annex.

Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework

The model includes three dimensions (cognitive, social and teaching presence) and is measured with a five point scale (strongly disagree - strongly agree):

See Community of inquiry model for the questionnaire.


  • Biggs, John (1993). What do inventories of students' learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification. British Journal of Educational Psychology, Volume 63, Issue 1, pages 3–19, February 1993
  • Chou, S.-W. and Liu, C.-H. (2005), Learning effectiveness in a Web-based virtual learning environment: a learner control perspective. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21: 65–76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00114.x
  • Richmond, V.P., Gorham, J.S., & McCroskey, J.C. (1987). The relationship between selected immediacy behaviors and cognitive learning. In M.A. McLaughlin (Ed.), Communication yearbook 10 (pp. 574-590). Newbury Park, CA: Sage. cited by Rovai and Barnum (2003).
  • Rovai, Alfred P. and Kirk T. Barnum, On-Line Course Effectiveness: An Analysis of Student Interactions and Perceptions of Learning, Journal Of Distance Education/Revue De L’Éducation À Distance, Spring/Printemps 2003, VOL. 18, No 1, 57-73
  • Saade, Raafat and Bouchaib Bahli, The impact of cognitive absorption on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in on-line learning: an extension of the technology acceptance model, Information & Management 42 (2005) 317–327. doi:10.1016/j.im.2003.12.013
  • Walker, Scott L., (2003). Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Distance Education Learning Environments in Higher Education: The Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES), Curtin University, PhD thesis. Abstract/PDF
  • Walker, Scott L. and Barry J. Fraser (2005). Development and Validation of an Instrument for Assessing Distance Education Learning Environments in higher Education: The Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES), Learning Environments Research, Volume 8, Number 3 (2005), 289-308, DOI: 10.1007/s10984-005-1568-3
  • Wu Dezhi and Starr Roxanne Hiltz (2004), Predicting Learning From Asynchronous Online Discussions, JALN Volume 8, Issue 2 — April 2004, PDF reprint
  • Yeo, Shelley, Taylor, Peter and Martijntje Kulski (2006). nternationalising a learning environment instrument for evaluating transnational online university courses, Learning Environments Research, Volume 9, Number 2 (2006), 179-194, DOI: 10.1007/s10984-006-9008-6