2 Definitions and background
The iPod Touch is the latest generation in Apple’s iPod line which was first launched in 2001 (Pymm & Crispin, 2009). The design of the iPod Touch is radically different from other iPod models (Auchincloss & McIntyre, 2008). There are not any physical buttons and the screen is a touch sensitive video display (Auchincloss & McIntyre, 2008). This handheld computer is able to play and record audio, images, and video (Banister, 2010). The iPod Touch is similar to the iPhone in its operation and function but less powerful (Ricci, 2011).
The iPod is a popular mobile learning technology (Pymm & Crispin, 2009). Mobile learning provides students and teachers with new innovative methods for learning and teaching (Crompton & Keane, 2012). Min, Cesar, and Wivagg (2014) described the importance of Mobile technology like iPods, ``Emerging mobile technology is having a transformative impact on how people live, learn, work, and play`` (p.115).
One unique credit to the iPod is its ability to appeal to both genders (Pymm & Crispin, 2009). The iPod has become an icon of popular culture (Pymm & Crispin, 2009). It started as a music player but has transformed into a device that can do so much more (Pymm & Crispin, 2009). The iPod has maintained its coolness with young people and can make a considerable contribution to education (Pymm & Crispin, 2009).
Banister (2010) conlcuded that some see the handheld computer as a tool that increases student learning. Auchincloss and McIntyre (2008) observed, “There are literally thousands of reasons for students to choose to carry the iPod Touch device…” (p.46). The iPod touch is portable which empowers the students to take their learning supports home (Auchincloss & McIntyre, 2008). The fact that the iPod is so portable and you can carry it with you unlike a computer or iPad makes it very practical (Walta & Nicholas, 2013). The iPod is more portable than the iPad and also much less expensive to purchase (Banister, 2010). One of the most appealing features of the iPod is its easily accessible content in an attractive and convenient size (Blaisdell, 2006). In classrooms time is important and the iPod is able to start-up and use in only seconds (Stav, Nielsen, Hansen-Nygard, & Thorseth, 2010).
Auchincloss and McIntyre (2008) found that students with digitally interactive reading supports extending into the home have significantly higher performance results than those who do not. Auchincloss and McIntyre (2008) argued that educators can initially integrate the iPod Touch into their classrooms as a multisensory teaching support, and that there are a variety of unforeseen ways in which the device could have a positive impact in the classroom. The iPod empowers students to access material and study at their own pace (Keengwe, Pearson, & Smart, 2009). By providing students with choices this may lead to increased learning and retention (Mathison & Billings, 2012).
Auchincloss and McIntyre (2008) compared the iPod to Smartboards. They found Smartboards and other systems can be costly and can only be utilized by a limited number of students. Auchincloss and McIntytyre (2008) also concluded that the iPod offers the same educational supports as other technologies, but with individual student access and a lower price point. With an iPod students can access media, photos, music, movies, Youtube, notes, weather, maps, clock, a calculator, and more (Banister, 2010). By using AirShare students can connect wirelessly with other computers, classroom projectors, etc. (Banister, 2010). It is very important to note that with an iPod every student can access the internet in their pocket (Banister, 2010). Web applications or Apps are downloadable programs that allow the device to be customized (Banister, 2010). Most Apps are free or available at minimal cost (Banister, 2010). An iPod could even be used as a communication device for disabled students (O'Reilly, Lancioni, Lang, & Rispoli, 2011)
Students will need to be monitored closely to ensure that they are on task and using the devices to support their learning (Banister, 2010). Teachers will need to monitor class sets of iPods closely to keep them safe from damage and charged ready for use (Banister, 2010). There are charging stations available designed for classroom use which will make this task more manageable (Banister, 2010). Making this form of mobile learning a successful reality will take some time and effort (Banister, 2010). Another constraint that users may face with iPods in the classroom is the Wi-Fi and firewall restrictions of the institution (Taylor, 2012). Educators may be reluctant to send the iPod home and this is key to successful adoption by students (Crichton, Pegler, & White, 2012).
Crichton et al. (2012) identified three issues for IT staff that must be overcome when implementing iPods in the classroom. First, there must be a digital commons for charging, syncing, and managing the devices. Second, there needs to be a manageable plan for administering the iTunes accounts and organize the content on the devices. Third, the management of these devices offers more independence for teachers for selecting apps and updates than is customary which may be difficult for IT staff. Overall Crichton et al. (2012) concluded that IT staff, teachers, and administrators will need to be willing to commit considerable time to learning the management of iPods in the classroom.
It can be very time consuming for instructors that are preloading content, and teaching students how to access the content or use the device to complete an activity (Sathe & Waltje, 2008). It is important to take a step back each time new technologies are implemented in the classroom to ensure that students are benefitting with increased learning; Keengwe et al. (2009) warned, ``Promoting technology for technology sake is a recipe for failure`` (p.344). Podcasts of lectures can be done easily with iPod access which may cause attendance issues for some students (Parson, Reddy, Wood, & Senior, 2009). Chricton et al. (2012) argued that students and teachers can have difficulty working on collaborative projects on multiple devices. Submitting and printing projects and assignments is another obstacle that must be overcome (Crichton et al., 2012).
6 Works Cited
Auchincloss, C., & McIntyre, T. (2008). iPod “teach”: Increased access to technological learning supports through the use of the iPod touch. Journal of Special Education Technology, 23, 45-49.
Banister, S. (2010). Integrating the iPod touch in K–12 education visions and vices. Computers in the School, 27, 121-131.
Blaisdell, M. (2006). In iPod we trust. T.H.E. Journal, 33(8), 30-36.
Crichton, S., Pegler, K., & White, D. (2012). Personal devices in public settings: Lessons learned from an iPod touch / iPad project. The Electronic Journal of E-learning, 10, 1-158.
Crompton, H., & Keane, J. (2012). Implementation of a one-to-one iPod touch program in a middle school. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 11, 1-18.
Keengwe, J., Pearson, D., & Smart, K. (2009). Technology integration: Mobile devices (iPods), constructivist pedagogy, and student learning. AACE Journal, 17, 333-346.
Mathison, C., & Billings, E. (2012). I get to use an iPod in school? Using technology-based advance organizers to support the academic success of English learners. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 21, 494-503.
Min, L., Cesar, N., & Wivagg, J. (2014). Potentials of mobile technology for K-12 education: An investigation of iPod touch Use for English language learners in the United States. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 17, 115-126.
O'Reilly, M. F., Lancioni, G. E., Lang, R., & Rispoli, M. (2011). Teaching functional use of an iPod-based speech-generating device to Individuals with developmental disabilities. Journal of Special Education Technology, 26, 1-11.
Parson, V., Reddy, P., Wood, J., & Senior, C. (2009). Educating an iPod generation: Undergraduate attitudes, experiences and understanding of vodcast and podcast use. Learning Media and Technology, 34(3), 215-228.
Pymm, J. M., & Crispin, D. (2009). Podagogy: The IPod as a learning technology. Active Learning in Higher Education, 84-96.
Ricci, C. (2011) Emergent, self-directed, and self-organized learning: Literacy, numeracy, and the iPod touch. International Review of Research in Open & Distance Learning, 12, 135-146.
Sathe, N., & Waltje, J. (2009). The iPod project: A mobile mini-lab. Journal of the Research Center for Educational Technology, 4, 32-56.
Stav, J., Nielsen, K., Hansen-Nygard, G., & Thorseth, T. (2010). Experiences obtained with integration of student response systems for iPod touch and iPhone into e learning environments. Electronic Journal of E-Learning, 8, 179-190.
Taylor, L. (2012) Beauty and the iPod – a story of contrasts and the use of podcasting in vocational education – Nail technology. Research in Learning Technology, 20, 142-151.
Walta, C., & Nicholas, H. (2013). The iPod touch in association with other technologies in support of a community of inquiry in off-campus teacher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 29(6), 870-886.