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Argumentative Essay Markup Language (ArgEssML) is an Relax NG XML Schema to define argumentative texts. ArgEssML was devised using existing schemas to represent argumentation and extended to include the ontology of argumentative writing including:

  • argumentation
    • argument components based on Aristotle, Toulmin model
  • the structure of an argumentative essay
  • writing processes
    • idea-generation
    • text-production
    • structuring
    • linearization
  • difficulties of novices
    • scaffolding of cognitive and metacognitive processes in writing

C-SAW (Computer-Supported Argumentative Writer) is a prototype on-line writing tool to scaffold argumentive writing activities of novice writers. Initial testing showed positive results. C–SAW offers varying representations of the underlying framework as represented within an XML based schema, while keeping the elements of the schema simple enough to be accessible to young writers.

Other argumentation markup languages

  • AML (Argumentation Markup Language) - developed to support a collaborative argumentation tool (SEAS) and sponsored by Stanford University’s SRI International. (AML) is an XML schema designed to represent argumentation in analytic decision-making and draws on law terminology for its framework but claims to be capable of representing any argumentation tool.
  • Mini-ArgML - (a DTD) was developed for the Belvedere groupware project of Suthers and Paolucci (1995). It focuses on the components of a stand-alone argument based on the Toulmin model.
  • ARL (Argumentation Representation Language) was developed to represent reasoned discourse as it occurs in a variety situations, from policy-making to colloquial conversation.



  • Benetos, Kalliopi (2006), Computer-Supported Argumentative Writer An authoring tool with built-in scaffolding and self-regulation for novice writers of argumentative texts, Master thesis, TECFA, University of Geneva. PDF