Shared expertise refers to expertise knowledge that is shared by two or more persons or organizations.
Shared expertise is something that happens in most activity-based designs:
- Designs that include constructionist writing activities (writing-to-learn) engage learners in sharing but may also engage people with expertise.
- In situated learning (cognitive apprenticeship), sharing is a center piece of the framework. I.e. apprentices learn from experts through enculturation. Communities of practice are "groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise by interacting on an ongoing basis." (Wenger, 2002)
- In CSCL sharing is viewed as a process of mutual understanding, conflict resolution and grounding, i.e. truly shared knowledge (expertise) is the result of learning processes.
Experience sharing often can happen in informal ways or through tasks.
In management theory, shared expertise is a form of human capital. “Human capital refers to knowledge that is embodied in people. As such, the human capital and knowledge literatures are linked. Human capital is explored in the economics literature, while the knowledge literature draws primarily from sociology.” (Coff, 2002: 108)
Collective Development of Expertise (Bereiter & Scardamalia 1993, Lave & Wenger 1991) is organizational learning.
- Workplace design (including buildings). E.g. so-called learning centres
- Ubiquitous technology, e.g. individuals can post little notes, video and audio stream to a shared surface (Streitz et al.).
- In particular, there is interest for ambient displays (e.g. displays designed to display information without constantly demanding the user's full attention. (Streitz et al.).
- All sorts of social software.
Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1993). Surpassing ourselves: An inquiry into the nature and implications of expertise. Chicago and La Salle, IL: Open Court.
- Coff, Russell W. (2002), Human Capital, Shared Expertise, and the Likelihood of Impasse in Corporate Acquisitions, Journal of Management, Vol. 28, No. 1, 107-128 (2002), DOI 10.1177/014920630202800107
- Dybala T. and Tecuci G. (1995). Shared Expertise Space: A Learning Oriented Model for Cooperative Engineering Design. In Proceedings of the IJCAI-95 Workshop on Machine Learning in Engineering. August. Montreal, Canada. [HTML]
- Konsynski & McFarlan (1990) Konsynski, Benn R.; and McFarlan, F. Warren. Information Partnerships - Shared Data, Shared Scale. Harvard Business Review Sept.-Oct. 1990: 114-120
- Streitz, N. A. , Th. Prante, C. Röcker, D. van Alphen, C. Magerkurth, R. Stenzel, D. A. Plewe, Ambient Displays and Mobile Devices for the Creation of Social Architectural Spaces: Supporting informal communication and social awareness in organizations., In: K. O'Hara, M. Perry, E. Churchill, D. Russell (Ed.): Public and Situated Displays: Social and Interactional Aspects of Shared Display Technologies, Kluwer Publishers, 2003. pp. 387-409. PDF Reprint
- Wenger, Etienne, McDermott, Richard, Snyder, William M. (2002) Cultivating communities practice. Harvard University Press.
- Wenger, Etienne. (2000), Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems, Organization, Volume 7(2): 225-246