- Self-regulation is a kind of meta-cognitive strategy and related to the choice of appropriate learning strategies
- Educational design should design learning environments that engage students in appropriate self-regulative activities
Zimmerman et al. specified three important characteristics:
- self-observation (monitoring one's activities);
- self-judgement (self-evaluation of one's performance) and
- self-reactions (reactions to performance outcomes)
See also: Self-directed learning
2 Interest for instruction
According to Bandura Self-regulation strongly depends self-efficacy theory self-efficacy beliefs. “ Perceived self-efficacy influences the level of goal challenge people set for themselves, the amount of effort they mobilize, and their pesistence in the face of difficulties. Perceived self-efficacy is theorized to invludence performance accomplishments both directly and indirectly through its influences on self-set goals.” Zimmerman et al. (1992: 665)
For Alpert Sleigh (1997) self-regulation includes several components:
- motivation to monitor and control learning
- the learner's epistemic beliefs on learning
- cognitive and learning strategies
- prior knowledge and mental models to scaffold new knowledge
According to Zimmerman et al. (1992: 664), self-regulated learners direct their learning processes and attainments by
- setting challenging goals for themselves
- applying appropriate strategies to achieve their goals,
- and by enlisting self-regulative invludences that motivate and guide their efforts.
In addition, “ self-regulated learners exhibit a high sense of efficacy in their capabilities, which influences the knowledge and skill goals they set for tehmselves and their commitment to fulfill these challenges [...]. This conception of self.directed learning not only encompasses the cognitive skills emphasized by metacognitive theorits, but also extends beyond to include the self-regulation of movtivation, the learning envionment, and social supports for self-directedness.” (Zimmerman et al. (1992: 664)
3 Self-regulation tools
ITSs and ILEs can provide built in tools to facilitate self-regulation in learning processes by providing dynamic and intelligent regulatory feedback (Winne, 2005). Visualizations, assessments, reflective journaling, models and simulations are some options to enhancing self-regulation.
Jermann et al. (2004), describing collaboration management tool design options, distinguish between three types of regulation tools:
- mirroring tools: reflect information on an interaction with no evaluation
- metacognitive tools: propose possible courses of action with a comparison to a reference model
- guiding systems: comparison of the current state with the desired state is assessed by the system internally and guidance is provided accordingly.
4 Instructional design models that emphasize self-regulation
- Self regulated learning (TeLearn Thesaurus)
- Alpert Sleight, D. (1997). Self-Regulated Learning during Non-Linear Self-Instruction, Educational Psychology, Michigan State University. .
- Boekaerts, M., Pintrich, P. R., & Zeidner, M. (Eds.). (2000)Handbook of Self-regulation. San Diego: Academic Press.
- Butler, Deborah L. and Philip H. Winne (1995). Feedback and Self-Regulated Learning: A Theoretical Synthesis. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 65, No. 3. (Autumn, 1995), pp. 245-281.  (this is probably the most quoted overview paper - Daniel K. Schneider)
- Fetterman, D. M. (2001). Foundations of empowerment evaluation. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
- Jermann, Patrick, A. Soller, and A. Lesgold. Computer Software Support for Collaborative Learning. In What We Know About CSCL in Higher Education, pages 141-166. Kluwer, Amsterdam, 2004.
- Jermann P. & Dimitracopoulou A. (2004b): Future Research Directions on Interaction Analysis Indicators. Interaction and Collaboration Analysis supporting Teachers’ and Students’ Selfregulation (ICALTS) JEIRP Deliverable D.26.1.3. Kaleidoscope NoE, December 2004. pp. 22. Available online at: http://telearn.noe-kaleidoscope.org
- Niemi, H., Launonen, A. & Raehalme, O. (2002). Towards self-regulation and social navigation in virtual learning spaces. A paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research 11-14 September 2002. University of Lisbon, Portugal. Paper available in Education-line database: HTML
- Pintrich, Paul R.; And Others. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ).
- Pintrich, P. R. (Ed.). (1995). "Current Issues in Research on Self-regulated Learning: A discussion with Commentaries (Special Issue)". Educational Psychologist, 30 (4).
- Pintrich, Paul R.(1995)Understanding Self-Regulated Learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, n63 p3-12 Fall,1995.
- Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The Role of Motivation in Promoting and Sustaining Self-regulated Learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31 (6), 459-470.
- Pintrich, P. R. (2000). The Role of Goal Orientation in Self-regulated Learning. In Monique Boekaerts, Paul R. Pintrich and Moshe Zeidner (Ed.) Handbook of Self-regulation (pp. 452-502). San Diego: Academic Press.
- Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Students Goal Orientation and Self-regulation in the College Classroom. In M. L. Maer, & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (pp. 371-42). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, (Vol.7).
- Päivi Virtanen, Hannele Niemi, Anne Nevgi, Outi Raehalme and Anna Launonen (2003), Towards strategic learning skills through self-assessment and tutoring in web-based environment, Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, University of Hamburg, 17-20 September 2003 HTML
- Pintrich, P. R., & Ruohotie, P. (2000). Conative Constructs and Self-regulated Learning. RCVE: Hämeenlinna, Finland.
- Virtanen, P., & Niemi, H. (2002). Online Tutoring to Support Student's Self-regulation and Learning Skills in Virtual Learning Environments. Paper presented at the Education and Cultural Diversities NERA's 30th Congress 7.-9. March 2002, Tallinn, Estonia.
- Winne, P. (2005) A perspective on state-of-the-art research on self-regulated learning. Instructional Science. 33: 559–565
- Zimmerman, Barry J. (2000): Self-Regulatory Cycles of Learning. In: Gerald A. Straka (Ed.): Conceptions of Self-Directed Learning. Münster: Waxmann, 221 - 234.
- Zimmerman, Barry J. (1989): Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement. In: Barry J. Zimmerman, Dale H. Schunk (Eds.): Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: theory, research and practice. New York: Springer, 1-25.
- Barry J. Zimmerman; Albert Bandura; Manuel Martinez-Pons (1992). Self-Motivation for Academic Attainment: The Role of Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Personal Goal Setting, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 29, No. 3. (Autumn, 1992), pp. 663-676. PDF (Access restricted)
- Barry J. Zimmerman; Manuel Martinez Pons, Development of a Structured Interview for Assessing Student Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, American Educational Research Journal, Vol. 23, No. 4. (Winter, 1986), pp. 614-628. PDF (Access restricted)
- Schunk, Dale H., Barry J. Zimmerman.(1998)Self-Regulated Learning- From teaching to self-reflective practice. New York:Gulliford Press. online version recommended
- Scott G. Paris,Alison H. Paris. (2001)Classroom Applications of Research on Self-Regulated Learning.Educational Psychologist.2001, Vol. 36, No. 2, Pages 89-101. abstract
- Teresa Garcia. (1995) The Role of Motivational Strategies in Self-Regulated Learning.
- Teresa Garcia Duncan,Wilbert J. McKeachie. (2005).The Making of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Educational Psychologist 2005, Vol. 40, No. 2, Pages 117-128. 
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