Cultural competence/Cause of culture shock scale

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Causes of culture shock scale (CCSS) by Goldstein and Keller (2015) [1]

This scale was presented in a results table:

Table 1.   
CCSS means, standard deviations, and factor loadings.   
1. Internal causes eigenvalue = 7.29; Var = 30.36%; α = .8848.0311.17 
CCSS8 Feels uncomfortable making mistakes5.031.410.53
CCSS10 Has poor stress management skills3.981.620.73
CCSS11 Has difficulty making friends in the new culture4.71.40.74
CCSS13 Finds adjusting to the new culture to be exhausting4.691.440.51
CCSS15 Feels confused about their own identity41.560.69
CCSS16 Lacks social support4.421.50.6
CCSS18 Finds that their personality clashes with the host culture4.751.390.6
CCSS19 Is emotionally unbalanced3.641.510.75
CCSS20 Lacks skills for behaving appropriately in the host culture4.441.650.67
CCSS21 Is prejudiced4.111.670.7
CCSS24 Experiences changes in identity4.31.280.62
2. External causes eigenvalue = 2.05; Var = 8.52%; α = .7643.616.39 
CCSS2 Is interacting with people who differ from him/herself5.61.130.59
CCSS3 Finds that things that appear to be similar are not5.081.340.52
CCSS5 Is in an environment where a foreign language is spoken5.721.480.6
CCSS7 Has difficulty coping with the new environment5.671.30.66
CCSS12 Has values that clash with those of the new culture5.211.440.51
CCSS14 Has difficulty communicating with members of host culture5.361.280.57
CCSS17 Lacks knowledge about the new culture5.331.220.53
CCSS22 Is experiencing loss of familiar surroundings5.571.240.54
Excluded Items   
CCSS1 Feels rejected by members of the host culture4.221.570.37
CCSS4 Feels distanced from members of home country5.241.50.3
CCSS6 Thinks things are better in their home culture4.421.620.44
CCSS9 Becomes aware of cultural differences5.51.330.44
CCSS23 Has difficulty predicting others’ behavior4.681.350.47
  1. Susan B. Goldstein, Sadie R. Keller, U.S. college students’ lay theories of culture shock, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 47, July 2015, Pages 187-194, ISSN 0147-1767, (